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Theories & Concepts in Inter group Relations PowerPoint Presentation
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Theories & Concepts in Inter group Relations

Theories & Concepts in Inter group Relations

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Theories & Concepts in Inter group Relations

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  1. Theories & Concepts in Inter group Relations A basic framework Prejudice Negative Contact Discrimination Stereotypes Stephan & Stephan

  2. Review of Definitions • Prejudice=Negative attitudes • Negative evaluations & feelings (E.g., Evaluations=I don’t like…, Feelings=I hate) • Stereotypes=Assumptions that members of a certain group have a certain characteristic • E.g., Asians are ‘smart’ • E.g., “Dear White Boss” article: Blacks are perceived as a group when referred to as ‘them’ or ‘you people • Discrimination-Unequal treatment or behavior toward members of different groups • E.g., Dear White Boss article, Black bosses with black subordinates are more likely to be scrutinized

  3. Review Qs • Give an example distinguishing the three concepts • What are the differences in consequences of stereotypes vs. prejudice vs. discrimination

  4. Negative Contact Causes of How to reduce it

  5. Causes of Negative Contact Situational Factors Societal Factors Negative Contact Person Factors

  6. Societal Factors • Create equal status conditions during contact • E.g., match on SES, education • Remove barriers to equal status • E.g., Legislation Situational Factors Negative Contact Person Factors

  7. Situational Factors Societal Factors Negative Contact Person factors • Cognitive abilities (e.g., to understand statistical info) • Motivation (e.g., openness to change) • Intensity of affect toward group • Cognitions of other group

  8. Situational Factors • Cooperation b/w group members leads topositive outcome • Group identities are salient after positive outcome but not before • Contact is • Not superficial • Supported by respected authority figures • Voluntary • Task is engaging Societal Factors Negative Contact Person Factors

  9. How to reduce Negative Contact b/w Gays & Heterosexuals in Community Situational Factors e.g., create joint task in community Societal Factors e.g., legislation supporting gay marriage Reduced Negative Contact Person Factors e.g., liberal vs. conservative; intensity of dislike

  10. Overview of Lecture Prejudice Negative Contact Discrimination Stereotypes

  11. Prejudice Causes of How to reduce it

  12. Traditional Causes of Prejudice • Perceived competition for insufficient resources • Threats involving resources, values, anxiety, stereotypes • Belief that own group is better • Positive evaluation of in group to boost self esteem Prejudice

  13. Perceived competition for insufficient resources • Perceived over-rides actual threat • E.g., Israel vs. Palestinian conflict about land; • USA/Canada vs. China and S. E. Asian countries due to fewer jobs Prejudice

  14. Provide accurate information about group differences Reduce perceived competition for resources Reduce Prejudice

  15. Traditional Causes of Prejudice • Perceived competition for insufficient resources • Threats involving resources, values, anxiety, stereotypes • Belief that own group is better • Positive evaluation of in-group to boost self esteem Prejudice

  16. Anxiety about interacting with out-group because expect negative outcomes • E.g., expect interactions w/Black male as being hostile • Perceive out-group values as threatening • E.g., value of hedonism • Negative stereotypes of out-group are threatening • E.g., Blacks perceived as threatening bec. of skin colour & facial features Perceived Threat Prejudice

  17. Enable positive face-face interactions Reduce Anxiety about interacting with out-group Reduce Perceived Threat Reduce Prejudice

  18. Traditional Causes of Prejudice • Perceived competition for insufficient resources • Threats involving resources, values, anxiety, stereotypes • Belief that own group is better • Positive evaluation of in group to boost self esteem Prejudice

  19. Highlight membership in common in-groups Stretch in-group boundaries to include out-group Increase similarity Positive evaluation of outgroup members now regarded as part of ingroup Reduced Prejudice

  20. Complex Causes of Prejudice • Have positive & negative feelings toward out-group • E.g., sympathy vs. aversion • Have negative feelings toward out-group but value equality • Have negative feelings toward out-group and perceive differences in values • E.g., in self-reliance • Experience guilt for having negative thoughts & feelings

  21. Targeting Complex Causes of Prejudice • Have negative feelings toward out-group but value equality? • Highlight feeling-value discrepancy • Have negative feelings toward out-group and perceive differences in values? • Provide accurate information about out-group’s values

  22. This lecture vs. Next lecture Prejudice Negative Contact Discrimination Stereotypes