The British Empire It was ‘the empire on which the sun never set’:
Pair-Share Activity • Next to the following primary source quote, explain what Hodson is saying about the importance of India as a colony to Great Britain.
A.V. Hodson, Advisor to the Viceroy of India • “Without India and the naval power that cemented it, Great Britain was but a medium –sized country. With it, she was great among the greatest, boasting a worldwide Pax Britannica. Without India, the subordinate empire would be scarcely more than a string of colonial beads.”
The Spice Trade • Pepper, cinnamon, rice, tea, cotton, indigo etc. all were in great demand in Europe • Very expensive due to taxes and tariffs by Italians and Turks
Expanding Power Imperialism • Europeans had built trading posts along Asian, African coats, but held little territory farther inland • By late 1700s, European states began expanding power in Asia, Africa • Two factors that made possible: new technologies, weakening of great empires of Asia, Africa • Arrival of British in India, example of European imperialism, the process of one people ruling, controlling another • By 1700, Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal ruled vast territories in the Americas • Europeans had less success ruling territory in Asia, Africa Setting the Stage
The British East India Company: 1600 – 1857
British East India Company • First Imperialism in India was NOT done by British government! http://www.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/gallery/East-West/images/India_04_obv.gif
Imperialism in India started with a trading company • The British East India Company: • The company was started to control trade between Britain, India, and East Asia. • VERY POWERFUL! http://eiu.edu/~cfnek/syllabi/3555/British_empire_color.jpg
British East India Company ● controlled British trade in India • eventually the company gained political control over Bangladesh, Southern India, and Northern India (along Ganges River)
Kept India in Chaos • Manipulated rulers of states, suggested each needed British support to keep throne • Played rulers against each other, kept India in chaos • Company’s army took over much of India, claiming it had to restore order . British East India Company
East India Company and Culture • Cultural imperialism not a major concern of the company • Goal was to make money • Some interest in Indian culture • Friendships and intermarriages • Officers required to learn Persian and Sanskrit • Christian missionary activity discouraged • Paternalism • British educational system slowly introduced
I How did the British East India Company change India? • 1. New Education system • Teach English http://images.exoticindiaart.com/books/education_in_india_idk265.jpg
How did the British East India Company change India? • 2. New Laws: banned some customs like “Sati”- widows killing themselves by jumping into their husband’s funeral fire. http://images.google.co.th/imgres?imgurl=http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/empire/g2/cs4/images/g2cs4s1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/empire/g2/cs4/g2cs4s1.htm&h=358&w=600&sz=58&hl=en&start=8&usg=__SHqaROPAnlLgDq66oreMGe9mEMM=&tbnid=PKM7QPW7iHB7KM:&tbnh=81&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2522Sati%2522%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den
How did the British East India Company change India? • 3. Religion: Christian Missionaries came to spread their beliefs in India. http://www.hinduyuva.org/tattva-blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/harvesting_souls_of_india.jpg
How did the British rule India? Began to take over taxation of people Used the same system as the Mughal empire Promised “protection” In 1850: 300,000 men in army. Only 50,000 were British 100,000 British men ruling over 200 million Indians
Pair-Share Activity • Which of the changes made to India by the British East India Company do you think was most important and why? • Do this next to the last slide for British East India Company.
Britain’s Jewel in the Crown” India was Britain’s most valuable colony, or “jewel in the crown.” Forced to produce raw materials for British manufacturing Also forced to buy British goods
“Jewel in the Crown” • Industrial Revolution turned India into a major supplier of raw materials to Great Britain • 300 million Indians were a large market for British products
“Jewel in the Crown” • British forbade India from trading on its own with other countries • India was forced to produce raw materials for only Britain and to buy finished products from only Britain • Indian competition with British finished products was forbidden
“Jewel in the Crown” • Britain set up a railroad network to take raw materials from inside India to its ports
Raw Materials Taken from India • Tea • Indigo (dye for clothing)
Raw Materials Taken from India • Coffee • Cotton
Raw Materials Taken from India • Jute (fiber for making rope) • Opium (plant that heroin is made from)
Pair-Share Activity • Draw a crown with THREE peaks. • In each of the peaks, write down a reason as to why India was so important to Great Britain. • There were many reasons, so you need to decide on the three you think were the most important. • Do this next to the last slide for the Jewel of the Crown.
Indians Rebel By 1850 most Indians resented that Great Britain owned their country Indians were angry at attempts to forcefully convert them to Christianity Indians were angry Britain controlled all useful land in their country ■ Indians were angry at the constant racism expressed towards them by the British
Sepoys • Indians who joined British armies in India • Resented by other Indians
Sepoy Mutiny: Underlying and Immediate Causes • Underlying Causes • Religious Frictions: Some British officers actively attempted to convert the sepoys to Christianity although the British East India Company discouraged it. The sepoys resented imposing Christianity and Christian laws in India. • Doctrine of the Lapse: The Company automatically seized land from a feudal leader who died without leaving an heir. • Unfair justice system toward Indians. British officers accused of crimes against Indians were granted multiple appeals and advantages when being tried. • High Caste Sepoys: The Bengal Army of sepoys were recruited from a higher caste of Indians. Therefore, if the high caste sepoys were considered to be "polluted", they would have to expend considerable sums of money on ritual purification before being accepted back into society. • Immediate Cause • The Enfield Rifle: It required the soldier to bite the cartridge and hold the ball in his mouth when loading the rifle. The belief that the cartridge was lubricated with animal fat (either pork or beef) offended both Muslims and Hindus.
Sepoy Mutiny • Sepoys in Meerut refused to use cartridges; thought it plot to make them abandon Hinduism, Islam • Sepoys punished for protesting • In response, northern Indian sepoys rose up against British • Eventually gained control of Delhi • Violence of rebellion ferocious • Both sides committed atrocities • Sepoys killed British officers, as well as wives, children • Captured mutineers strapped to cannons and shot; villages burned • Fighting continued two years
Indians Did Not Fully Unite During Sepoy Mutiny serious splits between Hindus and Muslims unclear inconsistent leadership Many Indian princes did not take part in the rebellion (made alliances with British) Sikhs (Indian religious group) remained loyal to the British
Effects/Results Sepoy Mutiny • Sepoy rebelled against East India Company rule • Resulted in the end of 100 years of company rule in India • British government took direct control to protect their valuable trading empire and ruled from 1858 to 1947 • The Indians could not unite against the British due to weak leadership and serious splits between Hindus and Muslims. • The mutiny increased distrust between the British and the Indians.
This is a British political cartoon that appeared after the Sepoy Mutiny. • You see that the British perceived their violent crushing of the rebellion as justice. • This again speaks to why the British refer to the event as a mutiny, while the Indians refer to it as a rebellion.
Pair-Share Activity • The British refer to this event as a Mutiny, while the Indians refer to this event as a Rebellion. Two clearly different interpretations. • Based upon what you have learned, which viewpoint do you agree with and why? • Write this next to the last slide about the Sepoys.
Turning Point • 1858 British government took direct control over India (because of the Mutiny) • Raj (time period when India was under Great Britain’s control: 1857-1947)
Raj • India was divided into 11 Provinces and 250 districts sometimes a handful of officials would be the only British amongst millions of Indians in a district • Mutiny increased distrust between British and Indians: it fueled more British racism towards Indians
The Raj ICS Westernization • Era of British rule in India often called British Raj, Hindi word meaning “rule” • Administration carried out by government agency, Indian Civil Service (ICS) • Though ruling India, most ICS officials British • ICS employed very few Indians • Many educated Indians frustrated at having no say in own government • Many British thought they were superior • Segregated neighborhoods; exclusive clubs • Westernized Indians • Prejudiced, thought Indians incapable of governing selves India as a British Colony • Colony of colony—the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire, with political and financial rewards, national pride • For Indians, British rule source of frustration and humiliation • Frustration gave rise to powerful feelings of nationalism
Life under the British Raj Raj Building Projects • During Raj, British built railroads, roads, canals in India • By 1910, India had fourth-largest railroad network in world • British invested in transportation to move troops; help sell British products Raj Commerce • India important market for British manufactured goods • Also source of raw materials like cotton, tea, indigo, jute • Taxes from Indian landowners paid for administration of India, Indian army Raj Impact • British manufactured goods devastated India’s pre-existing textile industry • Had been major exporter; British closed factories to prevent competition • Mid-1800s, India primarily exported raw materials, not manufactured goods
Life Under the Raj • Stability and surprisingly honest government. • Modernization: • Many Indians educated • Women even allowed to attend college. • Modernized the country—railroads, highways, telegraph, postal service, etc. • Religious reform • Outlawed sati and female infanticide. • Reigned in the thuggee cult (“thugs”).
Pair-Share Activity • Based upon what you know thus far about British Imperialism in India, do you think there were more positives or more negatives for the Indian people? Why? • Do this next to the last slide for British Raj.
Role of World War One Rowlatt Act