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Practice Test. Clear your desks except for a pen/pencil, calculator, and reference tables. No talking Please. State Avogadro’s Hypothesis, make a drawing with numbers to explain it.

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## Practice Test

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**Practice Test**Clear your desks except for a pen/pencil, calculator, and reference tables. No talking Please.**State Avogadro’s Hypothesis, make a drawing with numbers**to explain it. • Equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure conditions have the same numbers of particles (or moles of particles).**To explain Avogadro’s Hypothesis,**When different gases are at the same pressure and temperature conditions, if you get equal amounts of gas in liters (or other volume measure) then they will contain the same number of gas particles. They will weigh differently because each gas has it’s own molar mass. They will be different gases, but the particles are so small compared to the gas space it takes up, that they will contain equal numbers of particles (or moles).**Kinetic Molecular Theory in 7 steps:**1. Gases are made up of hard spherical particles called atoms or molecules 2. Gas particle volume is very small to the size the gas takes up 3. The gas particles have no attraction or repulsion for each other. 4. Particles of a gas move rapidly and only in straight lines 5. Particle collisions are elastic – no loss of energy by bumping 6. The average kinetic energy of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas in Kelvin 7. The collisions of the particles of gas result in pressure being created**455 mm Hg1**101.3 Kpa760 mm Hg = 60.6 kPa X 1 atm101.3 kPa 349 kPa1 = 3.45 atm X**4**V1T1 V2T2 = 21.0 L273 K 15.O LT2 = (21.0 L)(T2) = (15.0 L)(273K) T2 = 195 K**5**P1T1 P2T2 = 0.85 atm 273 K P2228 K = (0.85 atm)(228 K) = (P2)(273 K) 0.71 atm = P2**6**P1V1T1 P2V2T2 = (1 atm)(24.8 L)273 K P2(21.2 L)323 K = (1 atm)(24.8 L)(323 K) = (P2)(21.2 L)(273 K) 1.38 atm = P2**7**P1V1T1 P2V2T2 = P1V1 P2V2 = (101.3 kPa)(34.0 mL) = P2(844 mL) (101.3 kPa)(34.0 mL) = (P2) 4.08 kPa = P2 844 mL**8**Volume as a function of Temp Pressure as a function of Temp Pressure as a function of Volume P P P temp temp temp**A real gas would more likely become a liquid when it is**Cooled down, and when the pressure increases. That’s because cooler means lower Kinetic Energy. The particles are less likely to bounce off of each other. Higher pressure means more collisions, and the more chances to bond into a liquid, the more likely liquid forms. A real gas acts most ideal like (never becoming a liquid) at Hotter temperatures because high temps means high kinetic energy. Less sticking together, more bouncing off of each other upon collision. Also, lower pressure, because low pressure means less collisions, less collisions means less chance of sticking together (becoming liquid).

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