What is a map? A map is a representation, usually on a flat surface, of the features of an area of the earth or a portion of the heavens, showing them in their respective forms, sizes, and relationships according to some convention of representation. Now what does that mean?
A map is a representation, A map is a drawing or model usually on a flat surface, of a round Earth on a flat surface, of the features of an area of the earth that shows the landforms (mountains, rivers, etc.) or a portion of the heavens, or part of the sky in a particular region, showing them in their respective forms, sizes, and relationships drawn to scale according to some convention of representation. using an accepted form of drawing or model. cartography The science of mapmaking is called _________________.
Types of Maps There are three basic types of maps: PHYSICAL POLITICAL and THEMATIC.
Physical Maps • Physical maps show the natural features of the Earth. • Physical maps do not contain man made features. • For example, a physical map would be a map of what you would see if you were looking down on Earth from space.
When you look at this map, what do you see? Notice you do not see country borders or city markings. These divisions are created by people. For example, there is no actual line dividing Texas from its bordering states. Although some astronauts (with the use of binoculars believe it or not) are able to see roads, large ocean tankers, and even the Great Pyramids from space, at very high altitudes, none of these are visible and all you are left with are natural land formations.
The World Physical • Physical maps show what the surface of the Earth looks like.
Political Maps Unlike physical maps, political maps show how humans have impacted the landscape. For example, city names, roads, country borders, etc. are all part of political maps. Political maps change frequently (physical maps change very, very slowly through geologic processes) and must be redrawn often. A political map of the world that is 50 years old is no longer accurate. Wars and ethnic conflict are two major causes political maps change.
The World Political • Political maps show how people have divided places on the Earth into countries, states, cities and other units for the purpose of governing them.
Thematic Maps • Thematic maps can represent a variety of information including things like climate, precipitation, vegetation, elevation, population, life expectancy, etc. • Thematic maps are generally used when you are looking at a single piece of information.
Map Components Title Lines Compass Key or Legend Scale
N W E S
Latitude and Longitude • The earth is divided into lots of lines called latitude and longitude.
Lines of longitude only Equator added Other lines of latitude added
Hemispheres • By using the equator and prime meridian, we can divide the world into four hemispheres, north, south, east, and west.
Directions • The cardinal directions are north, south, east, and west. • The intermediate directions are northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest. • They help describe the location of places in relation to other places. Detailed Compass Rose
Religions Legend Map Legends • The legend is the key to unlocking the secrets of a map. Objects or colors in the legend represent something on the map.
MAP LEGENDS Map legends explain what natural or man-made features the symbols on a map represent.
MAP SCALES • Map scales are used when determining the distance • between locations on a map. • A map scale is the ratio between distances on a map • & actual distances on the surface of the Earth. Verbal – expressed as a statement [One cm equals 10 km.] Fractional – expressed as a ratio [1:24,000] Activity - WS5: Using Legends Graphic – shows a line that represents a specific distance; line is broken into smaller increments
LATITUDE& LONGITUDE REVIEW • The equator divides the Earth into two equal halves – the north & south ________________. hemispheres 2. Longitude lines are also called ________________. meridians 3. What are the parallel lines that measure distances north and south of the equator called? _______________ latitude lines 4. What is the science of mapmaking called? _____________ cartography 5. The reference line for latitude is the __________. equator prime meridian 6. The reference line for longitude is the _________________. 7. What are the lines that measure distances east and west of the prime meridian called? ________________ longitude lines 8. Which line is located on the 180° meridian? ____________ International Date Line 9. The Earth is divided into 24 ____________, each 15° wide. time zones
Which city is located at 25° N, 118° E? Xiamen What are the coordinates of Keelung? 25 122 ° N ° E
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS What is a topographic map? • map that uses lines, symbols, & colors • to show changes in elevation of • Earth’s surface What is a contour line? • line on a topographic map • that connects points of • equal elevation • elevation is the distance • above or below sea level What is a contour interval? • difference in elevation between • two adjacent (side-by-side) • contour lines • the index contour s are marked • with the value of their elevation
B E D C F A
Time Zones • The Earth is divided into 24 time zones, corresponding to 24 hours in a day. • As the earth rotates, the sun shines in different areas, moving from east to west during the course of a day. • Places that have the same longitude will be in the same time zone.