Population Control Policies By: Jessica and Jordan
What is Demography • Demography is the study of human populations and their characteristics. (Family size, education, household income, culture and religion, age and occupation). World Population Patterns and Trends • In our world today, as demographers examine the population, they notice five major trends.
Large and Growing Larger • The worlds population is growing at an alarming rate. • If the present rate of growth continues, the world’s population could potentially end up at about 11 billion by 2100
The Growing Population Disparity • Today, more people generally live in LDC’s than MDC’s. There are two reasons for this: • Rapid improvements in the LDC’s healthcare caused the death rates to drop greatly, while the birth rates still stayed high. • In LDC’s, age structures aren’t as evenly proportioned as in MDC’s. There are more young and child bearing people than there are older people. This means that their population will continue to increase as all their younger generations grow up and have children of their own.
Declining Growth/Increasing Numbers • The population continues to increase even though population growth rates have declined. • This happens because more and more females are entering their child-bearing years. Demographic Momentum • The tendency for a population to continue to grow after fertility rates have fallen, owing to a large number of women of child-bearing years.
Changing Age Structure • A trend was noticed in MDC’s that the percentage of those over the age 65 has increased significantly while the percentage of those under the age of 15 has decreased. • It is estimated that by the end of the twenty-first century, the over 65 age group will outnumber the under 15 age group.
The Move to the Cities • Urbanization is happening and a lot of people are moving to the big cities instead of living on the land. • Urbanization is the highest in industrialized countries. What is urbanization? • It is a term often used in three senses: the proportion of a country’s population who reside in urban areas; the movement of people from rural areas to urban settings; the physical expansion of towns and cities into rural areas.
What can determine a population size • Four main factors: Birth rate- How many babies are being born. Death rate- How many people are dying. Immigration- People moving into the country. Emigration- People moving out of the country. • There are many other factors that contribute to the population size, these are just the main ones.
Population Density and Distribution • Both of these terms describe characteristics of the settlement of people: • Population density shows the average number of people who live in a specific unit of land. • Population distribution describes where people live.
Arithmetic and Physiologic Population Density • The arithmetic population density is the number of people in a particular area. - This is good because it can determine how crowded a country is. • Physiologic population density is the average number of people per unit of land. - This is good because it describes the number of people in a country with the area of cultivated land taken into account.
Birth Rates (BR) • The main factor that affects how many births occur in a given country is how many women make up the population. • There are many other factors that can affect the birth rate as well. • These include: Culture and religion, healthcare, education, income, family planning services, and many more.
How do these factors affect BR? • Culture and religion- Some would rather a small family while some encourage larger families. • Healthcare- Poor healthcare can result in a lot of deaths so families have more children to ensure some make it to maturity. • Education- Delays the process and women are most likely to find jobs outside of the home, so there’d be less children. • Income- Some families may not be able to afford it while others take advantage of the income that comes out of it. • Family planning- May not be able to afford birth control or other planning is out of reach.
Key terms • Total fertility rate (TFR): This refers to the average amount of children that a women would generally have in her lifetime. - It depends on those factors mentioned previously. • This amount tends to be higher in LDC’s. • Replacement level fertility rate: A certain fertility rate must happen in order for a country to keep its population level constant. - About 2.1 children in MDC’s - About 2.5 children in LDC’s
Death Rates (DR) • There are many factors that affect the death rates of countries. • These factors include: - Food and clean water. - The level of economic development. - War and environmental disasters. - The country’s fertility rate.
How do these factors affect DR? • Food and clean water- Without a source of food, one can only last so long, let alone a whole country. Also, without a clean source of water, infections and death can occur pretty fast. • Economic Development- With not a lot of development in the economy, there would be bad healthcare and poverty. • War and environmental disasters- With war, a lot of people could die in combat or from injuries and infections. Same thing for environmental disasters. • Fertility rate- If not enough births are happening to match the death rate, it will rise.
Overpopulation and Carrying Capacity • Overpopulation can mean different things to different people. - It can mean a country has so many people that the country is unable to feed everyone. • It can also mean that not everyone can have a house and two cars in the garage. • Carrying Capacity: The number of people that can live on a given area of land without degrading or harming it or the environment.
Overpopulation in MDC’s • Overpopulation in MDC’s tends to have a greater overall affect on the planet than LDC’s. • This is because people in MDC’s have more complicated lifestyles that are harmful to the planet and environment. • A lot of the environmental problems around the world like global warming, ozone depletion and resource depletion can be credited to MDC’s. • Really, it doesn’t matter who is responsible for it, because everyone on earth is facing the consequences.
Problems Associated with Overpopulation • Health and Social problems: - Food shortages; famine. - Low standard of living; low quality of life. - High infant, child, and maternal mortality. - Poor healthcare and medical care. - Poor living conditions (sanitation, water) - Inadequate housing; crowding. - Low life expectancy. - Spread of diseases; epidemics.
Problems Associated with Overpopulation • Environmental Problems: - Deforestation, desertification. - Loss of biodiversity and habitat. - Pollution; production and disposal of toxic waste. - Environmental illnesses. - Climate change; Global warming. - Ozone depletion. - Depletion and over-exploitation of non-renewable resources.
Problems Associated with Overpopulation • Economic Problems: - Inadequate individual and family income. - Unstable workforce. - Unemployment; underemployment. - Low or poor economic development. - Inflation; economic recession. - Low agricultural and industrial output.
Problems Associated with Overpopulation • Political Problems: - Political conflict. - Unstable governments. - Nationalism; military conflict. - Migration; refugees. - Loss of individual freedoms. - Human-rights violations.
What can be done? • If anything is going to be done about the rapid population growth, the solution would have to involve the birth rate. • A lot of people disagree on how this should happen. • Some think that government policies and planning should be put into place. • This can include just encouraging people to have less children or actually making a law regulating the amount of children a couple can have and when. • Birth control and improved healthcare are two other options. • Some families would be more likely to have less children if they knew they’d make it to maturity.
National Population Policies • Expansive population policies encourage more births to happen. • Restrictive population policies encourage fewer births to happen. • The expansive policies aren’t as common as they used to be but they still exist.
National Population Policies • A government may want to have a high birth rate to make sure of the following: - A good number of young people for military duty. - A large workforce. - A good number of younger people to care for elderly family members. - Protection for ethnic groups. - Enough people paying taxes to pay for increasing medical and pensions.
Population Policies Around the World • India: • http://prezi.com/b6urct57mxqt/indias-population-control-measures/
Population Policies Around the World • China: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARdxuC412zM • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TDkOJXOjNDo • Videos: play #2 first • http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=wm7rOKT151Y&feature=fvwp • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-W3-l1VE2hw
Group Activity • http://www.geographypages.co.uk/Population%201.swf • http://www.geographypages.co.uk/Population%202.swf
References • http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_demography • http://www.global-workforce.globalization101.org/demographics-lesson-2/ • Definitions and some information from the textbook. • Images from google. • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-child_policy