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Chapter 3 - Cells and Tissues Cell Anatomy PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 3 - Cells and Tissues Cell Anatomy

Chapter 3 - Cells and Tissues Cell Anatomy

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Chapter 3 - Cells and Tissues Cell Anatomy

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  1. Chapter 3 -Cells and TissuesCell Anatomy

  2. Cells and Tissues Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life • Cells - the building blocks of all living things • Tissues - groups of cells that are similar in structure and function

  3. Anatomy of the Cell • Cells not all the same, but share general structures • 3 main regions • Nucleus • Cytoplasm • Plasma membrane

  4. The Nucleus • Control center • Contains (DNA) • 3 regions • Nuclear membrane • Nucleolus • Chromatin

  5. Nuclear Envelope (Membrane) • Barrier of nucleus • Made of double phospholipid membrane • Pores allow for exchange of material with rest of the cell

  6. Nucleolus • Nucleus contains 1 or more nucleoli • Make ribosomes • Ribosomes migrate to cytoplasm through nuclear pores

  7. DNA – Chromatin & Chromosome Forms • Composed of DNA and protein • Chromatin - throughout nucleus in thread form • Chromosomes -condensed DNA forms before cell divides

  8. Cytoplasm Material outside nucleus and inside plasma membrane 1. Cytosol • Fluid that suspends other elements 2. Organelles • Machinery of cell 3. Inclusions • Non-functioning units

  9. Cytoplasmic Organelles

  10. 1. Ribosomes • Made of protein and RNA (made in nucleolus) • Sites of protein synthesis • Found at two locations • Free in the cytoplasm and • Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum

  11. 2. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) • Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances • Two types • Rough ER • Studded with ribosomes • Makes parts for membranes • Smooth ER • Makes & breaks cholesterol • Fat metabolism • Detoxifies drugs

  12. 3. Golgi apparatus • Modifies and packages proteins (3 types) • Secretory vesicles • Cell membrane components • Lysosomes

  13. 4. Lysosomes • Sacs of enzymes • digest nonusable materials 5. Peroxisomes • Sacs of oxidase enzymes • Detoxify harmful substances • Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals) • Replicate by pinching in half • Remember bubbling liver?

  14. 6. Mitochondria • “Powerhouses” of the cell • Change shape continuously • Uses O2 to break down food • Provides ATP for energy

  15. 7. Cytoskeleton • Protein structures • throughout the cytoplasm • Internal framework Three different types • Microfilaments • Intermediate filaments • Microtubules

  16. 8. Centrioles • Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules • Make spindle fibers during cell division

  17. Plasma Membrane • Barrier for cell contents • Double phospholipid layer • Hydrophilic heads • Hydrophobic tails • Other materials in membrane • Proteins • Cholesterol • Glycoproteins

  18. Plasma Membrane Specializations • Microvilli • Finger-like projections • Increase surface area for absorption • Membrane junctions • Tight junctions - impermeable • Desmosomes - anchor • Gap junctions - communicate

  19. Cellular Projections • Not found in all cells • Used for movement • Cilia move materials across the cell surface • Flagellum propels the cell