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Chapter 7

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  1. Chapter 7 International Strategy: Creating Value in Global Markets

  2. Topics • Why international expansion? • Determinants of national competitive advantage. • Motivations and risks of global expansion. • Two opposing forces—cost reduction and adaptation to local markets. • International Strategies. • Entry strategies

  3. Drivers of Globalization • increased similarity of lifestyles • global communications • fast communication • pressures to reduce costs

  4. Population of Selected Nations China 1,284,303,000 India 1045,845,000 United States 280,562,000 Japan 126,974,000 Germany 83,251,000 Country July 2002 (estimated) Exhibit 7.2 Populations of Selected Nations Source: www.brainyatlas.com/geos/gm.html.

  5. Motivations for International Expansion Increase Market Size Domestic market may lack the size to support efficient scale manufacturing facilities

  6. Motivations for International Expansion Increase Market Size Domestic market may lack the size to support efficient scale manufacturing facilities Japanese electronics or automobile manufacturers

  7. Motivations for International Expansion Increase Market Size Domestic market may lack the size to support efficient scale manufacturing facilities Japanese electronics or automobile manufacturers Return on Investment Large investment projects may require global markets to justify the capital outlays

  8. Motivations for International Expansion Increase Market Size Domestic market may lack the size to support efficient scale manufacturing facilities Japanese electronics or automobile manufacturers Return on Investment Large investment projects may require global markets to justify the capital outlays Aircraft manufacturers Boeing or Airbus

  9. Motivations for International Expansion Economies of Scale or Learning Expanding size or scope of markets helps to achieve economies of scale in manufacturing as well as marketing, R & D or distribution - Can spread costs over a larger sales base - Increase profit per unit

  10. Motives for Int’l Expansion • Optimize the physical location for every activity in its value chain • Performance enhancement • Cost reduction • Risk reduction

  11. Porter’s Determinants of National Advantage Home country of origin is crucial to International success

  12. Porter’s Determinants of National Advantage Home country of origin is crucial to International success Factor Conditions Basic Factors - Land, labor Advanced Factors - Highly educated workers - Digital communications Generalized Factors - Capital, infrastructure Specialized Factors - Skilled personnel

  13. Factor Conditions • To achieve competitive advantage, factors of production must be created • Industry specific • Firm specific • Pool of resources at a firm’s or country’s disposal is less important than the speed and efficiency with which the resources are deployed

  14. Porter’s Determinants of National Advantage Demand Conditions Factor Conditions Basic Factors - Land, labor Home country may support scale efficient operations by itself Advanced Factors - Highly educated workers - Digital communications Generalized Factors - Capital, infrastructure Specialized Factors - Skilled personnel Home country of origin is crucial to International success

  15. Demand Conditions • Demands that consumers place on an industry for goods and services • Demanding consumers push firms to move ahead of companies from other nations • Demanding consumers drive firms in a country to • Meet high standards • Upgrade existing products and services • Create innovative products and services

  16. Porter’s Determinants of National Advantage Related & Supporting Industries - Japanese cameras & copiers - Italian shoes & leather Factor Conditions Basic Factors Demand Conditions - Land, labor Advanced Factors - Highly educated workers - Digital communications Home country may support scale efficient operations by itself Generalized Factors - Capital, infrastructure Specialized Factors - Skilled personnel Home country of origin is crucial to International success

  17. Related and Supporting Industries • Related and supporting industries • Enable firms to manage inputs more effectively • Strong supplier base adds efficiency to downstream activities • Competitive supplier base lets a firm obtain inputs using cost-effective, timely methods • Allow joint efforts among firms • Create the probability that new entrants will enter the market

  18. Porter’s Determinants of National Advantage Related & Supporting Industries - Japanese cameras & copiers - Italian shoes & leather Factor Conditions Basic Factors Demand Conditions - Land, labor Advanced Factors Home country may support scale efficient operations by itself - Highly educated workers - Digital communications Generalized Factors - Capital, infrastructure Specialized Factors - Skilled personnel Home country of origin is crucial to International success Firm Strategy, Structure & Rivalry Intense rivalry fosters industry competition

  19. Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry • Rivalry is intense in nations with conditions of • Strong consumer demand • Strong supplier bases • High new entrant potential from related industries • Competitive rivalry increases the efficiency with which firms develop, market, and distribute products and services within the home country

  20. Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry • Competitive rivalry increases the efficiency with which firms • Develop within the home country • Market within the home country • Distribute products and services within the home country

  21. Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry • Domestic rivalry provides a strong impetus for firms to • Innovate • Find new sources of competitive advantage • Domestic rivalry forces firms to look beyond national borders for new markets

  22. Porter’s Diamond of National Advantage: As Applied to India Adapted from Exhibit 7.1 India’s Virtual Diamond in Software

  23. Potential Risks of International Expansion • Political and economic risk • Social unrest • Military turmoil • Demonstrations • Violent conflict and terrorism • Laws and their enforcement

  24. Risk Rankings Total of Credit Total and Access Total Risk Economic Political Debt to Finance Rank Country Assessment Performance Risk Indicators Indicators 1 Luxembourg 99.51 25.00 24.51 20.00 30.00 2 Switzerland 98.84 23.84 25.00 20.00 30.00 3 United States 98.37 23.96 24.41 20.00 30.00 40 China 71.27 18.93 16.87 19.73 15.74 55 Poland 57.12 18.56 13.97 9.36 15.23 63 Vietnam 52.04 14.80 11.91 18.51 6.82 86 Russia 42.62 11.47 8.33 17.99 4.83 114 Albania 34.23 8.48 5.04 19.62 1.09 161 Mozambique 21.71 3.28 2.75 13.85 1.83 178 Afghanistan 3.92 0.00 3.04 0.00 0.88 Exhibit 7.3 A Sample of International Country Risk Rankings Source: Adapted from worldbank.org/html/prddr/trans/so96/art7.htm.

  25. Potential Risks of International Expansion • Currency risks • Currency exchange fluctuations • Appreciation of the U.S. dollar • Management risks • Culture • Customs • Language • Income levels • Customer preferences • Distribution system

  26. Strategy Implementation Power distance (PD) Uncertainty avoidance (UA) Individualism-collectivism (I-C) Masculinity-femininity (M-F) Long-term orientation (LT) Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture

  27. Two Opposing Pressures: Reducing Costs and Adapting to Local Markets • Strategies that favor global products and brands • Should standardize all of a firm’s products for all of their worldwide markets • Should reduce a firm’s overall costs by spreading investments over a larger market

  28. Two Opposing Pressures: Reducing Costs and Adapting to Local Markets • Strategies that favor global products and brands • Are based on three assumptions • Customer needs and interests worldwide are becoming more homogeneous • People (worldwide) prefer lower prices at high quality • Economies of scale in production and marketing can be achieved through supplying global markets

  29. Two Opposing Pressures: Reducing Costs and Adapting to Local Markets • But those three assumptions may not always be true • Product markets vary widely between nations (customer needs and interests?) • In many product and service markets there appears to be a growing interest in multiple product features, quality and service (preference for low price?) • Technology permits flexible production, cost of production may not be critical to product cost, and firm’s strategy should not be product-driven

  30. Opposing Pressures and Four Strategies Exhibit 7.5 Opposing Pressures and Four Strategies

  31. International Strategy International Strategy • Pressure for both local adaptation and low costs are rather low • Different activities in the value chain have different optimal locations • Susceptible to higher levels of currency and political risks

  32. Global Strategy Global Strategy • Competitive strategy is centralized and controlled largely by corporate office • Emphasizes economies of scale • Advantages • Larger production plants • Efficient logistics and distribution networks • Supports high levels of investment in R&D • Standard level of quality throughout the world

  33. Global Strategy Global Strategy • Competitive strategy is centralized and controlled largely by corporate office • Emphasizes economies of scale • Disadvantages • Concentration on scale-sensitive resources and activities in one or few locations leads to higher transportation and tariff costs • Activity is isolated from targeted markets • The rest of the firm becomes dependent on that geographically isolated location

  34. Multidomestic Strategy Multidomestic Strategy • Emphasis is differentiating products and services to adapt to local markets • Authority is more decentralized • Risks include • Increased cost structure • Potential problems with local adaptations • Finding optimal degree of local adaptation is difficult

  35. Transnational Strategy Transnational Strategy • Optimization of tradeoffs associated with efficiency, local adaptation, and learning • Firm’s assets and capabilities are dispersed according to the most beneficial location for a specific activity • Avoids the tendency to either • Concentrate activities in a central location • Disperse them across many locations to enhance adaptation

  36. Transnational Strategy Transnational Strategy • Unique risks and challenges • Choice of an “optimal” location cannot guarantee that the quality and cost of factor inputs will be optimal • Knowledge transfer can be a key source of competitive advantage, but it does not take place automatically

  37. Strengths and Limitations of Various Strategies Strategy Strengths Limitations International • Leverage and diffuse parent’s knowledge and core competencies. • Lower costs because of less need to tailor products and services. • Greater level of worldwide coordination • Limited ability to adapt to local markets. • Inability to take advantage of new ideas and innovations occurring in local markets. Global • Strong integration across various businesses. • Standardization leads to higher economies of scale which lowers costs. • Helps to create uniform standards of quality throughout the world. • Limited ability to adapt to local markets. • Concentration of activities may increase dependence on a single facility. • Single locations may lead to higher tariffs and transportation costs. Exhibit 7.6 Strengths and Limitations of Various Strategies

  38. Strengths and Limitations of Various Strategies Strategy Strengths Limitations Multidomestic • Ability to adapt products and services to local market conditions. • Ability to detect potential opportunities for attractive niches in a given market, enhancing revenue. • Less ability to realize cost savings through scale economies. • Greater difficulty in transferring knowledge across countries. • May lead to “overadaptation” as conditions change. Transnational • Ability to attain economies of scale. • Ability to adapt to local markets. • Ability to locate activities in optimal locations. • Ability to increase knowledge flows and learning. • Unique challenges in determining optimal locations of activities to ensure cost and quality. • Unique managerial challenges in fostering knowledge transfer. Exhibit 7.6 Strengths and Limitations of Various Strategies

  39. High Low Wholly Owned Subsidiary Joint Venture Strategic Alliance Extent of Investment Risk Franchising Licensing Exporting Low High Degree of Ownership and Control Entry Modes of International Expansion Adapted from Exhibit 7.7 Entry Modes for International Expansion

  40. Exporting • Relatively inexpensive way to enter foreign market • Minimal risk • Successful distributors • Carry product lines that complement the multinational’s products • Behave as if they are business partners with the multinationals. • Invest in training, information systems, and advertising and promotion

  41. Licensing and Franchising • Franchisor receives a royalty or fee • Franchisee gets to use trademark, patent, trade secret or other valuable intellectual property • Disadvantages • Loss of control over its product • Licensee may become a competitor • Threat to brand name and reputation of products • Advantages • Limited risk exposure • Expanded revenue base

  42. Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures • Partnerships that enable firms to share risks and potential revenues and profits • Partners • gain exposure to new knowledge and technologies • Develop core competencies that can lead to competitive advantages • Gain information on local markets conditions

  43. Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures • Partnerships that enable firms to share risks and potential revenues and profits • Risks • Needs to be clearly defined strategy supported by both partners • Needs to be clear understanding of capabilities and resources that will be central to the partnership • Must be trust between partners

  44. Wholly Owned Subsidiaries • Business owned by only one multinational company • Acquire an existing company in the home country • Develop a totally new operation (greenfield venture) • Most expensive and risky of all global entry strategies • Greatest control over all activities