War in the Pacific Key Terms/Concepts: Clark Field, The Phillipines Bataan Death March Battle of Midway Island Hopping Kamikaze Manhattan Project
Attack on the Philippines Clark Field – U.S. air base – attacked hours after Pearl Harbor. Half of air fleet destroyed, U.S. troops retreat to the Bataan Peninsula Gen. MacArthur flees to Australia, vowing “I shall return”. The Philippines fall to the Japanese in 1942; Japan controls SE Asia.
Bataan Death March As Philippines fall, American and Filipino soldiers surrender. POWs are marched 60 miles to railroad to be sent to prison camps. Torturous journey is made without food or water, and soldiers are beaten and abused on the week-long trek. Treatment violates Geneva Convention rules, and creates intense hatred for Japanese among Americans.
Island-Hopping and the Battle of Midway Island-hopping strategy demonstration Isolating islands from supplies essentially renders them useless. War in the Pacific primarily fought by air and sea. At Midway, U.S. air forces destroy four Japanese carriers, 250 planes, and Japan loses many skilled pilots.
Kamikazes – The first suicide bombers? Japanese pilots load planes with bombs and intentionally fly in to enemy ships. A sign of Japanese desperation, or a total commitment to the cause?
Iwo Jima and the push toward Japan By 1945, Allied forces begin to close in on Japan itself. Battle of Iwo Jima requires one month, 110,000 American troops to secure the island; photo of American servicemen symbolizes the American military effort.
The Manhattan Project In 1939, Albert Einstein, a Jewish refugee, informs FDR of a revolutionary new bomb – one that the Germans may have access to. The Manhattan Project is launched to develop the atomic bomb, in a race with the Germans. In 1945, President Truman will have the opportunity to put that technology to use to end the war.
For Tomorrow Read your assigned reading – there are four different readings, and you will be given one of them. Write a brief summary of what you read, as well as an answer to the question: Based on what you’ve read, would you recommend that the U.S. use the atomic bomb to end the war in Japan? Be prepared to share your opinion in a class discussion tomorrow – your summary/answer is your ticket to the discussion; if you do not bring it, you will be given an assignment to complete, instead.