Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Programs PowerPoint Presentation

Programs

159 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Programs

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

    1. programs/MBS analogy programs : computers :: mindbody states : minds Mindbody state: an overall pattern of physiological and mental functioning at any one time, e.g. wakefulness, sleep, dreaming Silicon-based electronic information processing system carbon-based biological information processing How many programs can be written for computers? -- How many mindbody states can be written for minds? In this talk well see that this perspective gives us a much larger view of our minds, their abilities, and what their fullest development can be. Here well be looking at just a slice of this large perspective. TRANS: How does this view oblige us to look at our current disciplines and fields of study?Mindbody state: an overall pattern of physiological and mental functioning at any one time, e.g. wakefulness, sleep, dreaming Silicon-based electronic information processing system carbon-based biological information processing How many programs can be written for computers? -- How many mindbody states can be written for minds? In this talk well see that this perspective gives us a much larger view of our minds, their abilities, and what their fullest development can be. Here well be looking at just a slice of this large perspective. TRANS: How does this view oblige us to look at our current disciplines and fields of study?

    2. The most important obligation of any science is that its descriptive and theoretical language embrace all the phenomena of its subject matter; the data from [altered states of consciousness] cannot be ignored if we are to have a comprehensive psychology. Charles T. Tart, Altered States of Consciousness, p. 5 Neurotheology, religious studies, and theology too and their friends and relations How is your field of study doing? Implied criterion for evaluating findings, theories, and generalizations. TRANS: Tarts admonition leads us to 2 ideas.Neurotheology, religious studies, and theology too and their friends and relations How is your field of study doing? Implied criterion for evaluating findings, theories, and generalizations. TRANS: Tarts admonition leads us to 2 ideas.

    3. Singlestate Fallacy and Multistate Theory The erroneous assumption that all useful abilities reside in our ordinary, awake mindbody state. Multistate theory: humans produce and use a large number of mindbody states Opposites sides of the same coin SINGLESTATE FALLACY: an ignorance that needs to be healed Keeps us from becoming all we can be I am a fan of our ordinary, normal, awake state MULTISTATE THEORY: the big idea, the broad concept Current understanding of human mind is not wrong, but mightily incomplete TRANS: Multistate theory naturally brings up this question.Opposites sides of the same coin SINGLESTATE FALLACY: an ignorance that needs to be healed Keeps us from becoming all we can be I am a fan of our ordinary, normal, awake state MULTISTATE THEORY: the big idea, the broad concept Current understanding of human mind is not wrong, but mightily incomplete TRANS: Multistate theory naturally brings up this question.

    4. The Central Multistate Question How does/do ________ vary from mindbody state to mindbody state? Insert your favorite scholarly or scientific topic(s). TRANS: This leads us to an enormous opportunitye, to the major intellectual opportunity of our times Insert your favorite scholarly or scientific topic(s). TRANS: This leads us to an enormous opportunitye, to the major intellectual opportunity of our times

    5. THE CENTRAL MULTISTATE QUESTION How does/do vary from mindbody state to mindbody state? To sample the opportunities that the Central Multistate Question and its paradigm offer, try inserting the topics below into the question. To invent additional hypotheses, questions, and intellectual agendas, insert your favorite topics into the question. cognition consciousness memory meaningfulness learning compassion language aesthetics religion development emotions perception performance sensations observation values identity reason motivation health social interaction intelligence self-concept etc. These topics are not simple topics but groups of related topics. Enormous opportunity for positive psychology The items on this list are not single, narrow topics. They are all complex with many subcategories. COGNITION for example. To what extent is it possible to develop a repertoire of advanced cognitive processes, advanced thinking skills that lie in other MBSs? Keep this question in mind. Well come back to it several times today. TRANS: Today well take brief looks at the items in pink. We are just sampling subcategories within each of them, much more remains to be accomplished. These topics are not simple topics but groups of related topics. Enormous opportunity for positive psychology The items on this list are not single, narrow topics. They are all complex with many subcategories. COGNITION for example. To what extent is it possible to develop a repertoire of advanced cognitive processes, advanced thinking skills that lie in other MBSs? Keep this question in mind. Well come back to it several times today. TRANS: Today well take brief looks at the items in pink. We are just sampling subcategories within each of them, much more remains to be accomplished.

    6. Psychotechnologies Mindbody psychotechnologies are methods of producing mindbody states. Common spiritual: entheogens, yoga, contemplative prayer, meditation, fasting, isolation, chanting, etc. Others: biofeedback, sleep, dreaming, sensory overload and isolation, movement routines, flow, medical and nonmedical drugs, martial arts See Psychedelic Horizons for elaboration on Multistate Theory, Chapters 8-12. Not only is there an enormous number of topics to look at using multistate theory all the topics and their subcategories -- but there isa huge list of ways of producing mindbody states psychotechnologies. Imagine a matrix of the full list of topics to research as columns and the full line of psychotechnologies as rows, and the enormity of the multistate project becomes clear. Here too our list of psychotechnologies includes many specific ones within the ones listed here. Today well consider one family of psychotechnologies. See Psychedelic Horizons for elaboration on Multistate Theory, Chapters 8-12. Not only is there an enormous number of topics to look at using multistate theory all the topics and their subcategories -- but there isa huge list of ways of producing mindbody states psychotechnologies. Imagine a matrix of the full list of topics to research as columns and the full line of psychotechnologies as rows, and the enormity of the multistate project becomes clear. Here too our list of psychotechnologies includes many specific ones within the ones listed here. Today well consider one family of psychotechnologies.

    7. Entheogen a psychoactive plant or chemical used in a religious context and/or providing a feeling of sacredness, e.g. peyote, ayahuasca, psilocybin Our psychotechnology du jour Stimulate or simulate? Unresolved theoretical question May not be that important in practice. Like arguments about: Who has the correct religion? [T]hose who have achieved mystical states as a result of long and arduous spiritual exercises, fasting and prayer, or great moral efforts, possibly spread over many years, are inclined to deny that a drug can induce a genuine mystical experience, or at least look askance at such practices and such a claim. Our principle says that if the phenomenal descriptions of the two experiences are indistinguishable, so far as can be ascertained, then it cannot be denied that if one is a genuine mystical experience the other is also. This will follow notwithstanding the lowly antecedents of one of them, and in spite of the understandable annoyance of an ascetic, saint, or a spiritual hero, who is told that his careless and worldly neighbor, who never did anything to deserve it, has attained to mystical consciousness by swallowing a pill. W. T. Stace, Mysticism and Philosophy, 1960 Legal status is evolving: Native American Church Uniao du Vegetal (Feb. 21, last year Supreme Ct. decision) Religious liberty issues, for example, Who has the right to determine the future of religion? TRANS: Now were set to return to the Central Multistate Question and start looking at how entheogens enrich our approaches to the items that were colored pink. Our first cluster of topics is religion and religious studies. Our psychotechnology du jour Stimulate or simulate? Unresolved theoretical question May not be that important in practice. Like arguments about: Who has the correct religion? [T]hose who have achieved mystical states as a result of long and arduous spiritual exercises, fasting and prayer, or great moral efforts, possibly spread over many years, are inclined to deny that a drug can induce a genuine mystical experience, or at least look askance at such practices and such a claim. Our principle says that if the phenomenal descriptions of the two experiences are indistinguishable, so far as can be ascertained, then it cannot be denied that if one is a genuine mystical experience the other is also. This will follow notwithstanding the lowly antecedents of one of them, and in spite of the understandable annoyance of an ascetic, saint, or a spiritual hero, who is told that his careless and worldly neighbor, who never did anything to deserve it, has attained to mystical consciousness by swallowing a pill. W. T. Stace, Mysticism and Philosophy, 1960 Legal status is evolving: Native American Church Uniao du Vegetal (Feb. 21, last year Supreme Ct. decision) Religious liberty issues, for example, Who has the right to determine the future of religion? TRANS: Now were set to return to the Central Multistate Question and start looking at how entheogens enrich our approaches to the items that were colored pink. Our first cluster of topics is religion and religious studies.

    8. How do religion and religious studies vary from mindbody state to mindbody state? Spiritual MBSs as objects of study? MBSs as methods of study? Picking up Tarts admonition: Religious studies and neurotheology need to embrace spiritual phenomena in all MBSs to be complete. Multistate approach does not replace current religious studies, but (1) extends methods to new topics and (2) creates experimental religious studies. Currently research in religious studies is mostly anecdotal, descriptive, correlational, historical, hermeneutical. Not replacing them, but adding to them, moving some of their topics into experimental research. EXPERIMENTAL RELIGIOUS STUDIES Today well pay particular attention to mystical experiences. Picking up Tarts admonition: Religious studies and neurotheology need to embrace spiritual phenomena in all MBSs to be complete. Multistate approach does not replace current religious studies, but (1) extends methods to new topics and (2) creates experimental religious studies. Currently research in religious studies is mostly anecdotal, descriptive, correlational, historical, hermeneutical. Not replacing them, but adding to them, moving some of their topics into experimental research. EXPERIMENTAL RELIGIOUS STUDIES Today well pay particular attention to mystical experiences.

    9. Mysticism belief in the possibility of union with the Divine nature by means of ecstatic contemplation Oxford English Dictionary, 1980 Characteristics of Mystical Experiences Paradoxicality opposites seem equally true, or part of a greater truth Objectivity noetic quality, realer than real, absolutely true Transcendence- of time and space Transiency limited time Mood deeply felt positive mood Unity external (all is one), internal (self merging with inner world) Sacredness reverence for being in the presence of the divine or holy Ineffability cannot be expressed adequately in words Change in attitudes toward self an others, reduction in self-oriented motivation Entheogens can provide experimental mysticism. See Hoods Mysticism Scale. See also: [Primary] Spiritual Experience (list of 16 readings) http://www.csp.org/experience/experience.html TRANS: Place of mystical experiences in religion An idea that gains credibility experimental investigation of religious and theological beliefs. Characteristics of Mystical Experiences Paradoxicality opposites seem equally true, or part of a greater truth Objectivity noetic quality, realer than real, absolutely true Transcendence- of time and space Transiency limited time Mood deeply felt positive mood Unity external (all is one), internal (self merging with inner world) Sacredness reverence for being in the presence of the divine or holy Ineffability cannot be expressed adequately in words Change in attitudes toward self an others, reduction in self-oriented motivation Entheogens can provide experimental mysticism. See Hoods Mysticism Scale. See also: [Primary] Spiritual Experience (list of 16 readings) http://www.csp.org/experience/experience.html TRANS: Place of mystical experiences in religion An idea that gains credibility experimental investigation of religious and theological beliefs.

    10. Religion Before Its Doctrine and Morality Indeed, isnt religion above all before it is doctrine and morality, rites and institutionsreligious experience? And isnt religious experience in its highest form mystical experience ? Christianity and the World Religions. p. 168 Kung, Ess, von Stietencron, & Bechert See http://www.csp.org/ for a rich website on this topic with an emphasis on the entheogenic uses of psychedelics. TRANS: What does a mystical view of religion bring to our study of religion? Rather, one thing it brings. See http://www.csp.org/ for a rich website on this topic with an emphasis on the entheogenic uses of psychedelics. TRANS: What does a mystical view of religion bring to our study of religion? Rather, one thing it brings.

    11. Primary Religious Experience As The Taproot of Religion The taproot belief becomes more credible (and others less credible) after various experiences; again, entheogens make experimental studies of belief derived from mystical experiences (or consistent with them) possible. Well return to the ethics and values box of this schematic view in a couple slides. TRANS: Is this idea becoming more credible to people who have had mystical experiences, even entheogenic mystical experiences? If so, what might the mystical tributary affect the great, long river of Western religious tradition? I think this is a real possibility? The taproot belief becomes more credible (and others less credible) after various experiences; again, entheogens make experimental studies of belief derived from mystical experiences (or consistent with them) possible. Well return to the ethics and values box of this schematic view in a couple slides. TRANS: Is this idea becoming more credible to people who have had mystical experiences, even entheogenic mystical experiences? If so, what might the mystical tributary affect the great, long river of Western religious tradition? I think this is a real possibility?

    12. What people do. (behavior) What people think. (cognition) What people experience. (perception) What people do. (behavior) What people think. (cognition) What people experience. (perception)

    13. Gutenberg & Wasson Sacred rite Sacred text Sacred experience ca. 1500 ca. 2000 religious liberty: protecting minority from majorities, new religious movements from tyranny of the masses, entheogenists from verbalists Personal judgment: drug policy results in de facto religious persecution. Catholic president, never an entheogenist president. TRANS: Now lets consider the closely related topics of compassion and values using the Central Multistate Question. Sacred rite Sacred text Sacred experience ca. 1500 ca. 2000

    14. How do compassion and other values vary from mindbody state to mindbody state? in entheogenic states? Lerner, M. & Lyvers, M. (2006). Values and Beliefs of Psychedelic Drug Users: A Cross-Cultural Study. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 18 (2), 143-147. Abstract. Psychedelic users scored significantly higher on mystical beliefs (e.g., oneness with God and the universe) and life values of spirituality and concern for others than the other groups, and lower on the value of financial prosperity, irrespective of culture of origin. Users of nonpsychedelic illegal drugs scored significantly lower on a measure of coping ability than both psychedelic users and non illicit users. Both groups of illegal users scored significantly higher on empathy than non illicit users. Australia and Israel). Page 143. May be a self selective effect on who is attracted to which drugs and why. TRANS: Lets see if this inconvenient truth makes sense. Do Learner and Lyvers findings apply just to entheogenic mystical states or to mystical states in general?Lerner, M. & Lyvers, M. (2006). Values and Beliefs of Psychedelic Drug Users: A Cross-Cultural Study. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 18 (2), 143-147. Abstract. Psychedelic users scored significantly higher on mystical beliefs (e.g., oneness with God and the universe) and life values of spirituality and concern for others than the other groups, and lower on the value of financial prosperity, irrespective of culture of origin. Users of nonpsychedelic illegal drugs scored significantly lower on a measure of coping ability than both psychedelic users and non illicit users. Both groups of illegal users scored significantly higher on empathy than non illicit users. Australia and Israel). Page 143. May be a self selective effect on who is attracted to which drugs and why. TRANS: Lets see if this inconvenient truth makes sense. Do Learner and Lyvers findings apply just to entheogenic mystical states or to mystical states in general?

    15. Among the predictable characteristics of mystical experiences are a sense of the sacredness of all life and a desire to establish a new, more harmonious relationship with nature and with other human beings.

    16. There is a corresponding renunciation of the various forms of self-seeking, including the ethos of manipulation and control. David Wulff, Psychology of Religion. P. 639 When the ego is transcended, egoic motivations decrease, transpersonal ones increase. Verbalists (remember them from the Gutenberg-Wasson slide?) try to convince people to act with compassion and concern; transcendentalists take them beyond their egos. TRANS: If this transformation in values applies to mystical experiences, then it ought to apply to nonpsychedelic experiences too not just psychedelic ones. When the ego is transcended, egoic motivations decrease, transpersonal ones increase. Verbalists (remember them from the Gutenberg-Wasson slide?) try to convince people to act with compassion and concern; transcendentalists take them beyond their egos. TRANS: If this transformation in values applies to mystical experiences, then it ought to apply to nonpsychedelic experiences too not just psychedelic ones.

    17. The Moment That Turns Your Values Upside Down . MEN WOMEN Before After Before After Wealth Spirituality Family Growth Adventure Personal Peace Independence Self-Esteem Achievement Family Career Spirituality Pleasure God's Will Fitting In Happiness Be Respected Honesty Attractiveness Generosity W. R. Miller & J. CDeBaca, Anatomy of a Quantum Change. Spirituality & Health, February, 2005 The original study ranks 50 values. The 5 listed here are the top ranked. This data comes from spontaneous mystical experiences, not psychedelically produced ones. See also: Miller, W. R. & CDeBaca, J. (2001). Quantum Change: When Epiphanies and Sudden Insights Transform Ordinary Lives. New York: The Guilford Press. See also: States of Unitive Consciousness: Research Summary. http://www.csp.org/experience/docs/unitive_consciousness.html TRAN: Does this transformation hold for psychedelic peak experiences too? The original study ranks 50 values. The 5 listed here are the top ranked. This data comes from spontaneous mystical experiences, not psychedelically produced ones. See also: Miller, W. R. & CDeBaca, J. (2001). Quantum Change: When Epiphanies and Sudden Insights Transform Ordinary Lives. New York: The Guilford Press. See also: States of Unitive Consciousness: Research Summary. http://www.csp.org/experience/docs/unitive_consciousness.html TRAN: Does this transformation hold for psychedelic peak experiences too?

    18. Deep reverence for life and ecological awareness are among the most frequent consequences of the psychospiritual transformation that accompanies responsible work with non-ordinary states of consciousness. Stanislav Grof The Holotropic Mind, p.221

    19. Moral Development Flowchart Research possibilities: (Remember, we are looking at experimental possibilites of values research, not just descriptive, correlational, or philosophical.) Can we experimentally change peoples values? Are we on the threshold of experimental neuroethics? Should we? Which ones should we choose? What are higher values? Why do transcendental experiences affect some people and not others? Who gets to decide these issues? My personal wonderings: What would it mean to have a more moral world? Do we have the right to prohibit this path to moral development? To encourage it? There are plenty of questions her for a bioethicist. Or for an Institutional Review Board. TRAN: A bioethicist might look at mystical experiences this way.Research possibilities: (Remember, we are looking at experimental possibilites of values research, not just descriptive, correlational, or philosophical.) Can we experimentally change peoples values? Are we on the threshold of experimental neuroethics? Should we? Which ones should we choose? What are higher values? Why do transcendental experiences affect some people and not others? Who gets to decide these issues? My personal wonderings: What would it mean to have a more moral world? Do we have the right to prohibit this path to moral development? To encourage it? There are plenty of questions her for a bioethicist. Or for an Institutional Review Board. TRAN: A bioethicist might look at mystical experiences this way.

    20. Mystical experiences dispose us toward peace. Now, lets move back to our Central Multistate Question and look at the tip of the iceberg of health. Now, lets move back to our Central Multistate Question and look at the tip of the iceberg of health.

    21. How does health vary from mindbody state to mindbody state? Do entheogen occasioned mystical experiences boost the immune system? Placeboing See Chapters 6 and 7 in Psychedelic Horizons. Research leads: Boosting the immune system> Relationship between positive feelings and the immune system. Mystical experience, the most powerful positive affect, what are their affects on the immune system? Placeboing: If we fail to explore these leads, is this a lapse in the ethics of medical research? See Chapters 6 and 7 in Psychedelic Horizons. Research leads: Boosting the immune system> Relationship between positive feelings and the immune system. Mystical experience, the most powerful positive affect, what are their affects on the immune system? Placeboing: If we fail to explore these leads, is this a lapse in the ethics of medical research?

    22. Common Characteristics of Mystical Experiences, Spiritual Healing, and Spontaneous Remission Ecstasy, blessedness, sacredness, loving hands, deeply at home, noetic truth, relaxed yet energetic, attitude and behavioral changes, heightened autonomy Speculative hypothesis. Needs more work. This is elaborated on in Chapters 6 and 7 of Psychedelic Horizons. Originally in: (1999)Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 2. ORegan, B. & Hirshberg, C. (1993). Spontaneous Remission: An Annotated Bibliography. Sausalito, CA: Institute of Noetic Sciences. Have we discovered experimental spiritual healing or something like that? The idea seems odd, but a realistic possibility at the same time. TRANS: Are we intelligent enough to follow up on these leads in improvements to our spiritual, moral, and bodily lives, and what kind of intelligence will it take? Speculative hypothesis. Needs more work. This is elaborated on in Chapters 6 and 7 of Psychedelic Horizons. Originally in: (1999)Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 2. ORegan, B. & Hirshberg, C. (1993). Spontaneous Remission: An Annotated Bibliography. Sausalito, CA: Institute of Noetic Sciences. Have we discovered experimental spiritual healing or something like that? The idea seems odd, but a realistic possibility at the same time. TRANS: Are we intelligent enough to follow up on these leads in improvements to our spiritual, moral, and bodily lives, and what kind of intelligence will it take?

    23. How does intelligence vary from mindbody state to mindbody state? in entheogenic states? Can we increase spiritual intelligence, and what is spiritual intelligence anyway? Can we increase spiritual intelligence, and what is spiritual intelligence anyway?

    24. Using psychedelics to augment intelligence: Harman: engineers, designers, academics Mullis: PCR, Nobel Prize Crick (?): structure of DNA molecule, Nobel Prize Wallace: shareware These meet Gardners criterion for intelligence, and indicate a parallel path to enhance other human abilities. TRAN: What about Sternbergs idea of intelligence as mental self management? Using psychedelics to augment intelligence: Harman: engineers, designers, academics Mullis: PCR, Nobel Prize Crick (?): structure of DNA molecule, Nobel Prize Wallace: shareware These meet Gardners criterion for intelligence, and indicate a parallel path to enhance other human abilities. TRAN: What about Sternbergs idea of intelligence as mental self management?

    25. Metaintelligence Intelligence skillful use of our ordinary, awake MBS Metaintelligence the knowledge to select and ability to enter the most useful MBS for the task at hand Well educated includes having metaintellectual skills Multistate theory asks the question: If there are other useful cognitive processes, other productive thinking skills, in other mindbody states, the we would have fuller mental self management if we can reliably achieve and use those states. TRANS: Since we are considering entheogens today, do entheogens help us solve spiritual problems? Do they provide insights about religion and spirituality? Multistate theory asks the question: If there are other useful cognitive processes, other productive thinking skills, in other mindbody states, the we would have fuller mental self management if we can reliably achieve and use those states. TRANS: Since we are considering entheogens today, do entheogens help us solve spiritual problems? Do they provide insights about religion and spirituality?

    26. Spiritual Intelligence (toward Likert items) The perennial philosophy and the esoteric teaching of all time suddenly made sense. I understood why spiritual seekers were instructed to look within, and the unconscious was revealed to be not just a useful concept, but an infinite reservoir of creative potential. I felt I had been afforded a glimpse into the nature of reality and the human potential within that reality

    27. Toward Likert items, continued together with a direct experience of being myself, free of illusory identification and constrictions of consciousness My understanding of mystical teaching, both Eastern and Western, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, and Sufi alike, took a quantum leap. I became aware of all great religions, and understood for the first time the meaning of ecstatic states. Frances Vaughan, Perception and Knowledge The original is in paragraph prose format. Vaughan, Frances E. (1983). Perception and Knowledge: Reflections on Psychological and Spiritual Learning in the Psychedelic Experience. In L. Grinspoon & J. Bakalar, Psychedelic Reflections, (pp. 108-114). New York: Human Sciences Press. Clinical psychologist who separately and with her husband professor of psychiatry Roger Walsh have written books on transpersonal psychology. Appeared on the PBS special on love, early December, sponsored by the Fetzer Foundation. TRANS: Many of the topics weve look at at through the lens of multistate theory are clearly humanistic links and tones -- religion, values, intelligence. There are some more specific multistate topics in the humanities, and, as usual, entheogens can extend our investigations of these experimentally.The original is in paragraph prose format. Vaughan, Frances E. (1983). Perception and Knowledge: Reflections on Psychological and Spiritual Learning in the Psychedelic Experience. In L. Grinspoon & J. Bakalar, Psychedelic Reflections, (pp. 108-114). New York: Human Sciences Press. Clinical psychologist who separately and with her husband professor of psychiatry Roger Walsh have written books on transpersonal psychology. Appeared on the PBS special on love, early December, sponsored by the Fetzer Foundation. TRANS: Many of the topics weve look at at through the lens of multistate theory are clearly humanistic links and tones -- religion, values, intelligence. There are some more specific multistate topics in the humanities, and, as usual, entheogens can extend our investigations of these experimentally.

    28. Experimental Humanities Religion and Religious Studies Compassion and values Moral development Intelligence (Spiritual intelligence) Cognitive (!) Qualia ? meaningfulness sacredness, awe blessedness How do these vary from mindbody state to mindbody state? This is an experimental question. Design experiments to investigate these and similar topics. Griffiths, R. et al (2006). Psilocybin Can Occasion Mystical-type Experiences Having Substantial and Sustained Personal Meaning and Spiritual Significance. Psychopharmacology, 187, 268-283. Psychocriticism derived from Grofs model of the human mind. My chapter on Disneys Snow White in Psychedelic Horizons Philosophy. Riedlingers interpretation of Jean Paul Sartres mescaline experience and how it may have set the course of his philosophy. (1982). Sartres Rite of Passage. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 2, pages 105-123. History. Grof (1977) The Perinatal Roots of Wards, Totalitarianism, and Revolutions: Observations from LSD Research. Journal of Psychohistory, Vol. 4 (Winter) No. 3, pages 269-308.How do these vary from mindbody state to mindbody state? This is an experimental question. Design experiments to investigate these and similar topics. Griffiths, R. et al (2006). Psilocybin Can Occasion Mystical-type Experiences Having Substantial and Sustained Personal Meaning and Spiritual Significance. Psychopharmacology, 187, 268-283. Psychocriticism derived from Grofs model of the human mind. My chapter on Disneys Snow White in Psychedelic Horizons Philosophy. Riedlingers interpretation of Jean Paul Sartres mescaline experience and how it may have set the course of his philosophy. (1982). Sartres Rite of Passage. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 2, pages 105-123. History. Grof (1977) The Perinatal Roots of Wards, Totalitarianism, and Revolutions: Observations from LSD Research. Journal of Psychohistory, Vol. 4 (Winter) No. 3, pages 269-308.

    29. Broader Topics Consilience linking of facts and fact-based theory across disciplines to create a common groundwork of disciplines Edward O. Wilson Is the reprogrammable brain adaptigenic? more complete view of our world fuller view of our minds & cognitive repertoire recognize susceptibility to war and recreational violence, Grofs work expand what it means to be a human We are multistate. Consilience: Wilson, Edward O. (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. New York: Knopf. Entheogens influence biochemistry, cognition, and credibility and incredibility of ideas including religious ideas. Psychotechnologies can produce mindbody states that can be both independent or dependent variables, depending on the experiment. Adaptigenic: Greater range of responding, flexibility in thinking, wider diversity of actions and behavioral skills, wider repertoire of cognitive, perceptual, and bodily capacities: all these lead to increased thriving amd surviving. For individuals, groups, companies and institutions, and nations. Roberts, Thomas B. Is the Reprogrammable Brain Adaptigenic? Chapter 15 in Psychedelic Horizons. (See pages 204-207). TRANS: Are similar opportunities available for the sciences and religion? Consilience: Wilson, Edward O. (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. New York: Knopf. Entheogens influence biochemistry, cognition, and credibility and incredibility of ideas including religious ideas. Psychotechnologies can produce mindbody states that can be both independent or dependent variables, depending on the experiment. Adaptigenic: Greater range of responding, flexibility in thinking, wider diversity of actions and behavioral skills, wider repertoire of cognitive, perceptual, and bodily capacities: all these lead to increased thriving amd surviving. For individuals, groups, companies and institutions, and nations. Roberts, Thomas B. Is the Reprogrammable Brain Adaptigenic? Chapter 15 in Psychedelic Horizons. (See pages 204-207). TRANS: Are similar opportunities available for the sciences and religion?

    30. New Science/ New Religious Studies By combining mindbody psychotechnologies into novel recipes, will we invent new mindbody states, ones which have not existed before? What kinds of spirituality and religion will exist in those states? Here is the possibility I find most fascinating: So far most of our research into other mindbody states has been what I call the 3 Ds, and I propose a 4th. We discover other mindbody states, describe them, and develop their uses. We have barely begun this process, but this is what weve done so far. I propose a new D. Designing new mindbody states. As physics has progressed weve designed such things as new materials, computers, and even synthetic elements. In chemicstry we have synthethetic products such as plastics, artifical threads, etc. Biology is moving into this inventing and designing stage with the biotechnology companies. What mindbody psychotechnologies and states will we jumans invent in the future, will we Design? Remembering Central Multistate Question slide --- Will new kinds of _____ exist in these states? NRMs? Tart, C. (1991). Influences of Previous Psychedelic Drug Experiences on Students of Tibetan Buddhism. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 139-174. 94% marijuana 77% major psychedelics 52% psychedelics important to own spiritual development Growth of experiential religions Tricycle: The Buddhist Review (Fall, 1996) Topical issue: Buddhism & Psychedelics Syllabus for proposed course Entheogens - - Sacramentals of Sacrilege? http://www.cedu.niu.edu/epf/edpsych/faculty/roberts/index_roberts.html Here is the possibility I find most fascinating: So far most of our research into other mindbody states has been what I call the 3 Ds, and I propose a 4th. We discover other mindbody states, describe them, and develop their uses. We have barely begun this process, but this is what weve done so far. I propose a new D. Designing new mindbody states. As physics has progressed weve designed such things as new materials, computers, and even synthetic elements. In chemicstry we have synthethetic products such as plastics, artifical threads, etc. Biology is moving into this inventing and designing stage with the biotechnology companies. What mindbody psychotechnologies and states will we jumans invent in the future, will we Design? Remembering Central Multistate Question slide --- Will new kinds of _____ exist in these states? NRMs? Tart, C. (1991). Influences of Previous Psychedelic Drug Experiences on Students of Tibetan Buddhism. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 139-174. 94% marijuana 77% major psychedelics 52% psychedelics important to own spiritual development Growth of experiential religions Tricycle: The Buddhist Review (Fall, 1996) Topical issue: Buddhism & Psychedelics Syllabus for proposed course Entheogens - - Sacramentals of Sacrilege? http://www.cedu.niu.edu/epf/edpsych/faculty/roberts/index_roberts.html

    31. This is a new kind of scientific endeavor. This is a new kind of religious endeavor. This is a new kind of humanistic endeavor.

    32. Forte, Roberts (1997). Entheogens and the Future of Religion. San Francisco: Council on Spiritual Practices. Roberts, T,. & Hruby, P. (1994-2001). Religion and Psychoactive Sacraments. http://www.csp.org/chrestomathy. Roberts, Thomas. (2001). Psychoactive Sacramentals: Essays on Entheogens and Religion. San Francisco: Council on Spiritual Practices. Ruck, C. et al (2001) The Apples of Apollo: Pagan and Christian Mysteries of the Eucharist. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press. Smith, Huston. (2000). Cleansing the Doors of Perception: The Religious Significance of Entheogenic Plants and Chemicals. New York: Tarcher/Putnam. Forte, Roberts (1997). Entheogens and the Future of Religion. San Francisco: Council on Spiritual Practices. Roberts, T,. & Hruby, P. (1994-2001). Religion and Psychoactive Sacraments. http://www.csp.org/chrestomathy. Roberts, Thomas. (2001). Psychoactive Sacramentals: Essays on Entheogens and Religion. San Francisco: Council on Spiritual Practices. Ruck, C. et al (2001) The Apples of Apollo: Pagan and Christian Mysteries of the Eucharist. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press. Smith, Huston. (2000). Cleansing the Doors of Perception: The Religious Significance of Entheogenic Plants and Chemicals. New York: Tarcher/Putnam.