Download
chapter 9 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 9 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 9

265 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Chapter 9

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 9 Employee Empowerment and Interpersonal Interventions An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  2. Learning Objectives • Recognize need for employee empowerment. • Experience dynamics in communication. • Practice giving and receiving feedback on your personal communication style. • Describe career life planning and stress management. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  3. Changing Michael Dell’s DNA(part 1 of 2) Michael Dell manages with determination. Recent survey of Dell’s employees revealed problems. Half of employees would leave if given the chance. Felt M. Dell was impersonal. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  4. Changing Michael Dell’s DNA(part 2 of 2) M. Dell went before management team and offered honest self-critique. He promised to build tighter relationship with his team. Videotape of meeting shown to every manager in company. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  5. Empowering the Individual(part 1 of 2) Empowerment is giving employees power to make decisions about work. Power and decision making delegated to lower levels of employees. Interventions aimed at enhancing development of individual members. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  6. Empowering the Individual(part 2 of 2) Interventions include: • Helping organization members improve communications. • Interpersonal skills. • Managerial performance. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  7. Employee Empowerment The individual is one of the most critical elements in any large-scale organizational change. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  8. Central to Empowerment Is: • Delegation of power and decision-making to lower levels. • Promulgation of shared vision of future. • Engaging employees so they develop sense of pride and responsibility. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  9. Empowerment (part 1 of 3) Employees are more proactive and self-sufficient. Individual is one of most critical elements in change. Purpose is for individual’s purpose and vision congruent with the organization’s. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  10. Empowerment (part 2 of 3) In many organizations empowerment is basic cornerstone of change. GE has company wide version they call work-out. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  11. Empowerment (part 3 of 3) Empowerment concepts interwoven through OD interventions including: • Team and system interventions. • Total quality management. • Self-managed work teams, learning organizations. • High-performance systems. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  12. Laboratory Learning (part 1 of 2) Sometimes called encounter groups, sensitivity training, and training groups. Involves using a group as laboratory for discovering cause-and-effect relations in interpersonal communications. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  13. Laboratory Learning (part 2 of 2) Usually includes 10 to 12 participants who do not know one another and 1 or 2 experienced facilitators. Recently it is used less as an OD technique. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  14. Objectives of Laboratory Learning Include: • Insights into managerial and personal style. • Determine impact upon others. • Awareness of group functioning. • Analyzing and coping with change. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  15. The Johari Window Model Communication is critical in determining effectiveness of organizations. Johari Window Model is technique for identifying interpersonal communication style. Model presents 2 dimensional, 4 cell figure based on interaction of self and others. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  16. Figure 9.1The Johari Window An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  17. Four Areas of Johari Window(part 1 of 2) • Public area - behavior, thoughts, and feelings which are known both to the person and to others. • Blind area - aspects of the self not known to oneself but readily apparent to others. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  18. Four Areas of Johari Window(part 2 of 2) • Closed area - behaviors and feelings know only to oneself but not to others. • Unknown area - aspects of self not known to oneself or others. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  19. Disclosure and Feedback of Johari Window Disclosure involves open disclosure of one’s feelings, thoughts, and feedback to others. Feedback is behavioral process used to enlarge public area and reduce blind area. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  20. Our Changing World: Joint Ventures, Mergers, and Part-Ownership (part 1 of 3) Auto industry is good example of joint ventures, mergers, and acquisitions. • Toyota and General Motors. • Chrysler and Daimler Benz. • Nissan and Renault. • Mazda and Ford. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  21. Our Changing World (part 2 of 3) Trust and cooperation between Mazda and Ford is part of the joint venture. • They cooperate on new vehicles and exchange information. • Information that is shared is complementary. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  22. Our Changing World (part 3 of 3) Some principles they use are: • Meet often at all levels. • A third party settles disputes. • Anticipate cultural differences. Open, honest communication is key. Their relationship can define a Johari Window. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  23. Transactional Analysis Model for analyzing human behavior using familiar terminology. Structural analysis is useful to understand how we get to be who we are. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  24. Ego States of TA (part 1 of 2) Person has 3 sources of behavior called ego states: • Parent - behaviors copied from parental figure. • Adult - behaviors involving objective facts. • Child - behaviors retained from childhood. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  25. Figure 9.2Ego States An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  26. Ego States of TA (part 2 of 2) All 3 ego states exist within everyone. Each ego state necessary for well-integrated personality. Can enable person to better understand values, behaviors, and thoughts. Awareness can help to improve one’s effectiveness in an organization. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  27. Understanding Transactional Theory A transaction is basic unit of communication. Every interaction among people involves transaction between ego states. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  28. Transactions Are Classified As: • Complementary. • Crossed. • Ulterior. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  29. Complementary Transaction Occurs when a message sent from one ego state receives an expected response from other person’s appropriate ego state. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  30. Figure 9.3 aComplementary Transaction An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  31. Crossed Transaction Occurs when a message from one ego state receives response from inappropriate or unexpected ego state. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  32. Figure 9.3 bCrossed Transaction An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  33. Ulterior Transaction Involves two ego states simultaneously: • The literal words of the transaction, which may mean one thing. • And the underlying intent, which may mean something entirely different. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  34. Figure 9.3 cUlterior Transaction An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  35. Strokes in TA Are Recognition Stroke is any form of recognition including physical, verbal, and visual. Strokes are conditional and unconditional. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  36. Conditional and Unconditional Strokes Conditional strokes tied to some type of performance by receiver of stroke. Unconditional strokes are given with no strings attached. Both types of strokes are appropriate. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  37. Positive, Negative, and Crooked Strokes Strokes in TA may be: • Positive. • Negative. • Crooked. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  38. Positive Strokes Transactions that provide expected response and reassure a person’s worth. Results in a “You’re OK” feeling. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  39. Negative Strokes Critical transactions resulting in unexpected, unreassuring response. Results in “You’re not OK” feeling. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  40. Crooked Strokes Transactions that have double meaning. Transmits message different from words a person uses. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  41. Psychological Positions and Scripts Psychological position is person’s general outlook on life. It is how he or she relates to others. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  42. 4 Psychological Positions (part 1 of 2) • I’m OK, you’re OK. - acceptance of self and others, a healthy outlook. • I’m OK, you’re not OK. - tendency to mistreat, blame, and put down others. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  43. 4 Psychological Positions (part 2 of 2) • I’m not OK, you’re OK. - feelings of low self-esteem or lack of power compared to others. • I’m not OK, you’re not OK. - feelings of low self-esteem and loss of interest in living, with feelings of confusion and depression. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  44. Authentic Communication and Relationships of TA TA emphasizes open communications. Provides framework for examining how people communicate and work. Adult-to-adult transactions help develop employee involvement and empowerment. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  45. Career Live Planning Interventions Help individuals better manage their career. Process of choosing occupational, organizational, and career paths. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  46. Steps in Career Life Planning (part 1 of 2) • Prepare set of career life goals. • Go through the list to test for reality, determine priorities, and look for conflicting goals. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  47. Steps in Career Life Planning (part 2 of 2) • Make list of important accomplishments and things that made participant feel satisfied. • Work through list in Step 3 looking for conflicts. • Prepare detailed plan of action. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  48. Stress Management and Burnout Stress is interaction between individual and environment. Characterized by emotional strain affecting person’s physical and mental condition. Excessive work and personal stress can become dysfunctional. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  49. Stress Requires 2 Simultaneous Events • External event (stressor). • Emotional or physical reaction to the stressor such as: • Fear • Anxiety • Muscle tension • Increased heart rate An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

  50. Major Sources of Stress • On-the-job activities. • Events occurring away from work. The two interrelated and complex issues. An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition