Functional Behavior Assessmentand Positive Behavior Support PlansEnhancing Success and Safety in Schools Intermediate Unit I One Intermediate Unit Drive Coal Center PA 15423-9642 Created by Donna Whoric and PaTTAN Modified by Kristen Salamone
Objectives: Participants will: 1. Explain basic behavioral principles -Antecedents -Behavior -Consequences -Reinforcement/punishment -Replacement skills principles 2.Understand and implement the process of Functional Behavioral Assessment 3.Understand and develop Positive Behavior Support Plans
Tertiary Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Tertiary Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Secondary Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Small Group Interventions • Some Individualizing • Secondary Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Small Group Interventions • Some Individualizing • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student SuccessIncluding Individual SystemsA Response to Intervention Model Academic Systems Behavioral Systems 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
The Foundation Behaviors serve a function for the student. Behaviors are context related. Interventions are linked to the environment (social contexts) andfunction of the behavior. Effective behavior support must respect the dignity, preferences, and goals for the student/family.
The greatest danger for most of us is notthat our aim is too high and we miss it, but that it is too low and we reach it. Michelangelo
THE GOALS OF MISBEHAVIOR To Obtain/To Avoid Does the behavior allow the student to gainpeer or adult attention? Does the behavior allow the student to gainpreferred activities or items? Does the behavior allow the student to postpone, avoid, or escape anything (demands, social interaction, etc.)? Does the behavior provide stimulation activity (an alternative to a lack of active engagement in activities)?
What about Behavior? • Behaviors serve a function • Analysis of the function or purpose of a behavior is the key to intervention • Functional Behavior Assessment includes observation, interview and analysis to disclose information about the reasons behaviors occur
The 3-Term Contingency of Behavior A C B Antecedent Behavior Consequence (Stimulus) (Response) (Feedback) Learning occurs as a result of consequences, changing behavior successfully requires manipulating antecedents!
Antecedent A is what occurs before a behavior
CSI Antecedent Pay close attention to: • The activity • The adult(s) • The peer(s) • The location/environment • The demand or request • Nothing is not an option!!!
Environmental Temporal (time) Physical/Medical Task Presentation Instructor Instruction Antecedent Strategies A
B EHAVIOR • What is the behavior of concern that needs to be replaced by a more appropriate behavior? • (Describe in observable terms) • What are the appropriate behaviors/skills you will teach? (Describe in observable terms)
Defining Behavior An observable and measurable act of an individual • Behavior: • -running out into the hallway • -hitting desk with fist • -completing schoolwork early • -yelling expletives in class • -writing and passing notes to • classmates Not: -bad attitude -lazy -low self-esteem -frustrated -control, power -angry -lack of motivation -disrespectful Form- the way a behavior looks a. what we observe b. description of the behavior
Consequence C is any event that follows a behavior
C ONSEQUENCE What typically happens after the behavior of concern? What typically happens after appropriate behavior?
Consequence Pay attention to: • What the adult(s) do • Give a verbal reprimand • Keep the student in for recess • Take away points • What the other student(s) do • Laugh at the student • Imitate the student • Nothing is not an option!!!
Consequences • Reinforcement - event that follows a behavior which increases or maintains the future frequency of that behavior • Punishment– event that follows a behavior which decreases or eliminates the future frequency of that behavior
The consequence with which a behavior is met will determine its likelihood of reoccurrence!
Reinforcement or Punishment? We only know if a consequence is a reinforcement or a punishment by its effect on behavior NOT by our intent!!! (look at the future frequency of the behavior)
Consequence Strategies C • Incentive Charts • Behavior Contracts • Self-Monitoring • Token Economy • Response Cost • Group Contingencies
Consequence and Function • Jared talks out at least two times per class. Hesmiles, and other students snicker, when his teachers remind him to raise his hand. Since the beginning of the year, the problem seems worse. • Do the reminders reinforce or punish him? How do you know? • What might be the function of this behavior?
Behavioral EventsThe 3-Term Contingency of Behavior A B C = F (Function)
Antecedents to the behavior of concern Behavior of concern Maintains the behavior of concern Perceived function of the behavior of concern WIIFM A B C When antecedents, the student behavior of concern to perceived function.
2 Components of Behavior 1. Form (Topography) - the way a behavior looks a. what we observe b. description of the behavior 2. Function - the purpose that the behavior serves a. to get something b. to avoid, delay, or escape something
Why Determine the Function? Short term: To teach the student a new skill(replacement behavior) that achieves the same function as the behavior of concern. Ex. Handraising, saying “Hi”.
Functions of Behavior To get:To escape: -attention -attention -activities -activities -objects -objects -stimulus -stimulus
What? Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) Process Why? When? How?
Positive Behavior Support Behavior support programs and plans must be based on a functional assessment of behavior and utilize positive behavior techniques. When an intervention is needed to address problem behavior, thetypes of intervention chosen for a particular student or eligible young child must be the least intrusive necessary. §14.133(a), §711.46(a)
NEW Positive Behavior Support The use of restraints is considered a measure of last resort, only to be used after other less restrictive measures, including de-escalation techniques. §14.133(a), §711.46 (a)
Positive Behavior Support Positive behavior support plans – A plan for students with disabilities and eligible young children who require specific intervention to address behavior that interferes with learning. A positive support plan must: Be developed by the IEP team, Be based on a functional behavior assessment, Becomes part of the individual eligible young child’s or student’s IEP NEW §14.133(b), §711.46(b)
Positive Behavior Support Positive behavior support plans Such plans must include methods thatutilize positive reinforcement and other positive techniques to shape a student’s or eligible young child’s behavior, ranging from the use of positive verbal statements as a reward for good behavior to specific tangible rewards §14.133(b), §711.46(b)
Positive Behavior Support School entitieshave the primary responsibility for ensuring that positive behavior support programs meet regulatory requirements, including the training of personnel for the use of specific procedures, methods and techniques having a written policy and procedureson the use of positive behavior support techniques and obtaining parental consent prior to the use of restraintsor intrusive procedures In accordance with their plans, agencies may convene a review, including the use ofhuman rights committees, to oversee the use of restrictive or intrusive procedures or restraints. §14.133(f), §711.46(f)
Positive Behavior Support Subsequent to a referral to law enforcement, for students with disabilities who have positive behavior support plans, an updated functional behavior assessment and positive behavior support plan must be completed. NEW §14.133(h), §711.46(h)
The following methods may NOT be used… Corporal punishment Punishment for behavior that is caused by the student’s disability Locked rooms, locked boxes, or other locked structures or spaces from which the student cannot readily exit Noxious substances Deprivation of basic rights, such as withholding meals, water, or fresh air Treatment of a demeaning manner Electric shock Suspension or removal s from classes for disciplinary reasons that form a pattern. §14.133(e 1-8)
What is Positive Behavioral Support? A new way of thinking about behavior Broadens intervention from only one approach - reducing challenging behavior to….. Encompasses multiple approaches: changing systems, altering environments, teaching skills, and appreciating (actively acknowledging) positive behavior 35
PBS Includes A team process for goal setting Functional Behavioral Assessment Positive Behavior Support Plan design, implementation, and evaluation This means that everyone is prepared to interact with the child in the same way. 36
IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment Chapter 14 New Requirement High Confidence in Hypothesis Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment NO Satisfactory Improvement YES Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly 37 Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt
FBA is a process for gathering information to understand the function (purpose) of behavior in order to write an effective positive behavior support plan. Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) 38
Assumptions Underlying FBA Behavior is learned and serves a specific purpose. To get To avoid Behavior is related to the context within which it occurs 39
Questions to Address How often does the target behavior occur & how long does it last? Where does the behavior typically occur/never occur? Who is present for the occurrence/nonoccurrence of the behavior? What is going on during the occurrence/nonoccurrence of the behavior? When is the behavior most likely/least likely to occur? How does the student react to the usual consequences that follow the behavior? 40
Analyzing Patterns Under what circumstances or antecedent events is the target behavior most/least likely? WHEN? WHERE? WHAT? WHO? WHY? What consequences or results predictably follow the target behavior? WHAT DO THEY GET? WHAT DO THEY AVOID? What broader issues are important influences on behavior? 41
Summary Statement 1. When this occurs…(describe circumstances/antecedents) 2. the child does…(describe target behavior) 3. to get/to avoid…(describe consequences) 42
FBA LEVELS 30% Reliability in identifying function 60-80% reliable Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt; 43 http://www.behaviordoctor.org/
Functional Assessment Tools Functional Assessment Team Forms Functional Assessment Interview Forms Functional Assessment Behavioral Pathways Functional Assessment Observation Tools 44
Positive Behavior Support On going assessment and monitoring Behavior Support Plan Functional Assessment 45
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLAN Include: Antecedent Strategies Skill Development Reading Instruction Intensified Social Skills Instruction Communication Skills Development Writing Instruction Function Based Consequence Strategies • How does the information from an FBA transfer to the PBSP? 46 46
Assessment Summary:Positive Behavior Support Plan When (antecedents to the behavior of concern)__________________________________ the student (behavior of concern)____________________________________________ In order to (perceived function of the behavior of concern) _________________________________________________________________________ 47 47
Competing Pathways Chart Desired Alternative Maintaining Consequence or Function Target Behavior Maintaining Consequence or Functions Setting Events/Triggering Antecedents Acceptable Alternative Behavior Support Planning Consequence Modifications Setting Events Modifications Antecedent Modifications Behavior Teaching 48 L.Riffel 2008
V. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES – Include, as appropriate, academic and functional goals. Use as many copies of this page as needed to plan appropriately. Specially designed instruction may be listed with each goal/objective or listed in Section VI. Short term learning outcomes are required for students who are gifted. The short term learning outcomes related to the student’s gifted program may be listed under Goals or Short Term Objectives. SHORT TERM OBJECTIVES – Required for students with disabilities who take alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards (PASA). 49
VI. PROGRAM MODIFICATIONS AND SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTION FOR THE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLAN: 50