Positive Behavior Support in Secondary Schools K. Richard Young, Paul Caldarella, Lynnette Christensen Presented at 2012 TECBD Conference Tempe, AZ October 25, 2012
Young, E. L., Caldarella, P.,Richardson, M. J., & Young, K. R. (2012). Positive behavior support in secondary schools:A practical guide. New York: Guilford Press.
PBS Guiding Principles • Learning atmosphere free of coercion • Establishing positive relationships • Teaching approach to discipline • Reinforcing appropriate behavior • Fostering student self-management • Using data to improve student outcomes
Components of a Positive Learning Environment
Dalin is disrupting your class everyday. What behavior management strategy could you use to help manage Dalin’s behavior?
Proven Practices • Token Economy • Check In Check Out • Behavior Contract • Functional Behavioral Assessment • Other strategies
Creating a Learning Atmosphere Free of Coercion Adults frequently use punishment and threats of punishment to stop misbehavior.
Punishment Strategies • Threats • Verbal Reprimands • Time Out • Response Cost • Office Referrals • Other Strategies HOWEVER. . .
Side Effects of Coercion Some side effects that can be observed with students include escape, avoidance, resentment, disrespect and aggression.
Creating a Learning Atmosphere Free of Coercion Environments can be punishing or reinforcing, consistent or unpredictable. The way in which educators combine these elements can make teaching more or less effective.
Learning occurs best in environments that are positive, warm, safe and predictable.
The teacher: • Establishes the tone of the classroom • Demonstrates kindness and civility • Invites and answers questions with patience and understanding The students: • Rise to expectations • Feel comfortable • Ask and answer questions • Express ideas • Share critical thinking
Creating a Learning Atmosphere Free of Coercion • Make a list of a few key positive behaviors • Establish an environment that is reinforcing for students • Establish a few rules or expectations that state positive, expected behaviors • Directly teach
Advantages of Positive Relationships • Enhances the effectiveness of a teacher as a role model. • Students are more willing to accept feedback. • Students are more likely to give their best effort. • Praise and compliments become more meaningful.
Building Positive Relationships Positive relationships can be particularly important during adolescence, when youth are experiencing many new demands.
Relationship Bank CREDITS Every time you interact with a student, you have the opportunity to make a deposit in your account by behaving in a way that shows care and respect. DEBITS If you say or do things that are painful for the student, you withdraw funds from your account.
4:1 8:1 positives : negatives Positives to Negatives We all need the positive interactions in our lives to outweigh the negatives. Even if criticism is justified, it needs to be balanced out with EIGHT or more positives. If negatives outweigh the positives the relationship may be destroyed.
What are some specific things we can do to create positive relationships with students?
Ways to Foster Relationships with Students Verbal Behaviors • Offer to help • Compliment and praise • Express concern • Be polite • Get right to the point • Ask for help or advice • Use humor that has no put-downs or ridicule Non-Verbal Behaviors • Use a calm, pleasant voice • Use pleasant facial expressions • Spend time together • Seek opportunities to interact • Be open to concerns or criticism • Work alongside each other • Attend important school events
Having High Expectations • Creating and teaching high expectations for positive behavior is a fundamental part of success with students.
Establishing High Expectations for Appropriate Behavior Students who are striving to meet high behavioral expectations are less likely to exhibit inappropriate behaviors.
Establishing High Expectations for Appropriate Behavior Expectations need to be: • Clear and specific • Challenge learners at appropriate levels • Directly taught, encouraged, and positively reinforced
Establishing High Expectations for Appropriate Behavior If we relent and tolerate low expectations, we are in effect demonstrating to the student that less is acceptable.
Establishing High Expectations • Start with 3-5 • State rules positively • Always have positive consequences • Remember the 8:1 rule if using negative consequences Classroom Expectations: • Put-ups not put-downs. • Cooperate with others. • Solve problems peacefully.
Teaching Appropriate Behavior After establishing rules and expectations for appropriate behaviors, it is necessary to directly teach positive social emotional skills and routines.
Teaching Appropriate Behavior To be considered socially competent a student must be capable not only of using the social skills but of using the skills in appropriate contexts . . . with the right people, in the right place, at the right time.
Teaching Appropriate Behavior • Name and describe the skill/routine. • Give a rationale for why the skill/routine is important. • Model the social skill/routine for the students. • Have students practice the skill/routine several times. • Give feedback and praise. • Provide opportunities to practice the skills/routines in natural settings.
Name Describe the Skill/Routine • "Today I am going to teach you how to give someone a compliment. The steps are • 1. identify a behavior that deserves a compliment, • 2. look at the person, • 3. use a pleasant voice, and • 4. say the praise statement.”
Name and Describe the Skill/Routine “Steve, I thought you gave a great compliment to Angela in class about her presentation.You used the steps I am describing. Class, tell me again the steps of the skill.” After the class has repeated the steps: ”Great! Now you know the steps let’s talk about why it’s important."
Give a Rationale “It is important to give people compliments because our feedback helps them feel good about themselves.Compliments also let people know that you like them and notice the good things they do.”
Model the Skill/Routine "I'm going to pretend that Jasmine has recently moved here. She has smiled and been friendly to others. I will give her a compliment using the four steps.” “I first look at her and then say in a pleasant voice, ’Jasmine, I like your smile and how friendly you are.'”
Practice the Skill/Routine “Now it’s your turn to try it. We’ll do a couple of examples then you can practice with a partner.” Call on a student to role play: "Pretend that I am a student who just finished doing a presentation to the class. Show how you might give me a compliment.”
Provide Feedback and Praise “Scott, you gave a very nice compliment to Luiz. It’s very important that you look at the person. I know it might feel awkward, but it helps them know you are being sincere. Try it again and this time make sure you look at Luiz.” “As I listened to you practice I noticed that each of you looked at each other and used a pleasant voice as you gave your compliments."
Opportunities to Practice “Now you all know how to give a compliment. I’ll watch you this week. I want to see each of you give compliments.If you can't remember all of the steps, check the poster on the bulletin board or ask me for help. The more you practice, the easier it will become.”
Reinforcing Appropriate Behavior The combination of teaching and reinforcing positive behavior is the most powerful way of helping students learn to behave within boundaries established by the faculty.
Using Praise to Reinforce Appropriate Behavior “None of us needs someone who only points out our areas of weakness and the ways in which we have fallen short. We need someone who encourages us to go forward, to try again, to reach a little higher this time.”Gordon B. Hinckley Standing For Something
Purposes of Effective Praise • Builds relationships • Teaches and clarifies expectations • Reinforces students for practicing and mastering positive behavior • Increases competence and confidence
General Praise “Good Job!” “Thanks for doing that.” “You are smart.” Effective Praise “Good Job! This was a very creative short story with great characters.” “I appreciate the way you cleaned off your desk quickly when I asked you.” “You are smart. I’m impressed with how you’ve improved. You completed all the problems accurately.” General vs. Effective Praise
Praise is instructive when you: • Specifically state the behavior • Provide a detailed description of what occurred • Give a reason why the behavior is praiseworthy • Provide a pleasant consequence
Praise Data School Average of Teacher Praise Rate
Fostering Student Self-Management • Key to social competence • Integral part of school success and future accomplishment in life • Helps in the acquisition and maintenance of positive social behavior
Dependent Variable Socially Appropriate Classroom Behavior • Attending • Working on academic assignments • Answering questions • Getting the teacher’s attention appropriately • Compliance with teacher’s instructions
Using Data to Improve Student Outcomes Using data helps teams identify interventions and resources that are needed so they can take specific steps toward progress.