Functional Behavior Assessments and Positive Behavior Support Plans November 19, 2009 Midwestern Intermediate Unit IV 453 Maple Street Grove City, PA 16127
Intended Learning Outcomes • Describe how to conduct a functional assessment at all three levels • Explore various data tools that are utilized while conducting an FBA • Discuss results from completing an FBA • Develop a competing behavioral pathway to begin the positive behavior support plan • Discuss the skills and knowledge developed in the session on FBA • Develop skills necessary to lead a team from FBA to PBSP • List the components of an effective PBSP • Develop replacement behaviors to be used in competing behavioral pathways • Develop skills to create PBSP that will be implemented throughout the environment
What is an FBA • a process for gathering information to understand the function (purpose) of behavior in order to write an effective positive behavior support plan. • a process for identifying the events that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior.
What is an FBA? Completing an FBA allows us to Analyze Patterns • Under what circumstances or antecedent events is the target behavior most/least likely? • Who is present? • What is the activity? • When (time of day)? • Where does it occur? • What consequences or results predictably follow the target behavior? • What is gained or access? • What is avoided or postponed? • What broader issues are important influences on behavior?
What is an FBA? • Results in the following • Development of specific, clear description of the behavior of concern • Identification of environmental factors (antecedents and consequences) corresponding with the behavior • Development of summary statements identifying the perceived function(s) of the behavior of concern
Archival Review Problem Solving Meeting 1.Informal Checklist Functional Assessment Interview Brief Observation/Scatter Plot Initial Line of Inquiry 2. Simple A-B-C data Structured, Direct Observation 3. Complex What are the levels of assessment? FBA LEVELS Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt
Archival Review • Problem Solving Meeting 1.Informal • Checklist • Functional Assessment Interview • Brief Observation/Scatter Plot 2. Indirect/ Simple 3. Complex • A-B-C data • Structured, Direct Observation FBA LEVELS 30% Reliability in identifying function 60-80% reliable Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt http://www.behaviordoctor.org/
What are the levels of assessment? Informal FBA Conducted in school by staff that regularly interacts with the student Conducted as part of normal daily problem solving Simple FBA Conducted by the school specialist of school setting Typically involves interviews, checklists, and brief observation Complex FBA Conducted by behaviorally trained member of school, district, Intermediate Unit Typically involves interviews and direct observation
Building FBA Capacity What are the levels of assessment?
What is an FBA? All three levels of FBA maintain the same goals: • Define the target behavior. • Identify setting events • Identify the events/antecedent triggers • Identify the consequences • Analyze patterns to develop a summarystatement of function of the behavior.
FBA Summary Statement: 1. When this occurs…(describe circumstances/antecedents/setting events) 2. the student does…(describe target behavior) 3. to get/to avoid…(describe consequences) • What is an FBA?
What is an FBA? The FBA summary statement is a TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS Triggering Antecedents (Events that occur preceding the problem behavior) Maintaining Consequences (Typical response to the problem behavior) Problem Behavior/ Targeted Behavior
What are the requirements? Positive Behavior Support • Behavior support programs and plans must be based on a functional assessment of behavior and utilize positive behavior techniques. • When an intervention is needed to address problem behavior, the types of intervention chosen for a particular student or eligible young child must be the least intrusive necessary. §14.133(a), §711.46(a)
What are the requirements? §14.133(a), §711.46 (a) Positive Behavior Support The use of restraints is considered a measure of last resort, only to be used after other less restrictive measures, including de-escalation techniques.
What are the requirements? §14.133(b), §711.46(b) Positive behavior support plans – A plan for students with disabilities and eligible young children who require specific intervention to address behavior that interferes with learning. A positive support plan must: • Be developed by the IEP team, • Be based on a functional behavior assessment, • Becomes part of the individual eligible young child’s or student’s IEP
What are the requirements? §14.133(b), §711.46(b) Positive behavior support plans Such plans must include methods that utilize positive reinforcement and other positive techniques to shape a student’s or eligible young child’s behavior, ranging from the use of positive verbal statements as a reward for good behavior to specific tangible rewards
What are the requirements? §14.133(f), §711.46(f) Positive Behavior Support • School entities have the primary responsibility for ensuring that positive behavior support programs meet regulatory requirements, including • the training of personnel for the use of specific procedures, methods and techniques • having a written policy and procedures on the use of positive behavior support techniques and obtaining parental consent prior to the use of restraints or intrusive procedures • In accordance with their plans, agencies may convene a review, including the use of human rights committees, to oversee the use of restrictive or intrusive procedures or restraints.
What are the requirements? §14.133(h), §711.46(h) Positive Behavior Support Subsequent to a referral to law enforcement, for students with disabilities who have positive behavior support plans, an updated functional behavior assessment and positive behavior support plan must be completed.
What are the requirements? The following methods may NOT be used… • Corporal punishment • Punishment for behavior that is caused by the student’s disability • Locked rooms, locked boxes, or other locked structures or spaces from which the student cannot readily exit • Noxious substances • Deprivation of basic rights, such as withholding meals, water, or fresh air • Treatment of a demeaning manner • Electric shock • Suspension or removal s from classes for disciplinary reasons that form a pattern. §14.133(e 1-8)
FBA and Consent Will the FBA focus on the educational and behavioral needs of a specific child? • If so, then the FBA qualifies as an evaluation or reevaluation under IDEA and triggers the need to seek written parental consent. • If, the district uses an FBA as a widespread intervention tool to improve the behavior of all students in its schools, the FBA is not an evaluation and parental consent is not necessary.
FBA – When is Written Consent Required? • Initial Evaluation • Reevaluation • if the purpose of data collection is specific to an individual student’s educational and behavioral needs • if additional data is necessary to determine nature + extent of special education and related services needed to develop or modify behavior interventions and PBS in student’s IEP
FBA – When is Written Consent NOT Required? • Reviewing existing data • Administering a test or other evaluation that is administered to all children, unless parent consent is required for all children • Review of behavior interventions in school as a whole • Screening to determine instructional strategies for curriculum implementation
Does the Behavior impede learning (own or others)? • Does the student’s behavior represent a behavioral deficit or excess, rather than a cultural difference? • Is the student’s behavior serious, persistent, chronic, or a threat to the safety of the student or others? • If the behavior persists, is some disciplinary action likely to result? • Does the student’s behavior significantly differ from that of his/her classmates? • Does the student’s behavior lessen the possibility of successful learning for the student and others? • Have past efforts to address the student’s behavior using standard interventions been unsuccessful?
“If we consider problem behaviors as occurring in people, it is logical to try to change the people. If we consider problem behaviors as occurring in contexts, it becomes logical to change the context. Behavior change occurs by changing environments, not trying to change people.” O’Neill, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Storey, & Newton (1997)
Antecedent:what occurs before a behavior Review: Basic Behavior Terms Behavior: an observable and measurable act of an individual Consequence: any event that follows a behavior ReinforcementPunishment
Basic Behavioral Principles A B C Antecedent Behavior Consequence
Function to get or to escape/avoid Consequences Reinforcing or Punishing Antecedents slow and fast triggers setting events Target Behavior observable and measurable
B BEHAVIOR -an observable and measurable act of an individual • What is the behavior of concern that needs to be replaced by a more appropriate behavior that serves the same function? • What are the appropriate behaviors/skills • you will teach?
Select and Define the Behavior Make it specific Define the behavior so that it could be seen or heard by anyone reading or hearing your definition Define the behavior so that it is measurable - count it, time it, etc.
Defining Target Behaviors Example Non Example High pitched screams Poor impulse control Kicking over chairs Completing tasks Angry, hostile, resentful Hits others with fist Stubborn Paying attention Crying Lying on floor and refusing to move 30
A ANTECEDENT -anything that happens before behavior • What antecedents (near and far) are associated • with the desired behavior? • What antecedents (near and far) are associated • with the behavior of concern?
Antecedent* Pay close attention to: • The activity • The adult(s) • The peer(s) • The location/environment • The demand or request *“Nothing” is not an option!
C CONSEQUENCE -anything that happens after behavior • What typically happens after the behavior of • concern? • What typically happens after the appropriate • behavior?
Consequence* * “Nothing” is not an option! Pay attention to: • What the adult(s) do • Give a verbal reprimand • Keep the student in for recess • Send to timeout • Ignore the behavior • What the other students do • Laugh at the student • Imitate the student • Ignore the student
CONSEQUENCE -anything that happens after behavior Reinforcement - a consequence that results in increasing or maintaining the future rate of the behavior it follows 1. Positive Reinforcement – the delivery of something that increases a behavior (e.g., juice, money, attention, praise) 2. Negative Reinforcement – the removal of something that increases a behavior (e.g., picking up a screaming child stops the screaming, turning off water that is too hot in the shower) Negative Reinforcement is frequently confused with punishment. Punishment is the delivery of something that reduces a behavior.
Functions of Behavior Function- the purpose that the behavior serves a. to get something b. to avoid, delay, or escape something
Functions of Behavior To get:To escape: - attention - attention - activities - activities - objects - objects - sensory stimulus - sensory stimulus
Only 2 Basic Functions of Behavior Pos Reinf Neg Reinf Existing aversive condition identified
FBA Steps • Obtain permission • Define target behavior • Collect data • Indirect measures • Direct measures • Formulate hypothesis (validate) • Develop intervention plan (PBSP) 40
FBA Steps 2. Define the target behavior • Measurable and observable terms • Based on data collected on student in multiple settings, during multiple times of day, with different individuals 41
FBA Steps 3.Collect data on target behavior to determine the function of the behavior. • To get • To avoid or escape 42
Indirect: Example Informal Level of FBA • Archival Review • Office Discipline Referrals • Attendance Records • Problem Solving Meeting
Methods of Data Collection Indirect: Archival/Record Review • Diagnostic /medical records • Psychological information • Educational assessments • Social histories • Developmental profiles • Previous behavior programs • IEPs / Individual education plans • Anecdotal records/incident reports/discipline summaries 44
Strengths Easy to implement Minimal time/training required Structured methods May use for initial assessment Limitations 30% reliability to determine function Information can be subjective Non-specific functions identified (e.g., escape from work) Indirect: Strengths and Limitations Methods of Data Collection 45
Example: Mark Banks 46 WWW.swis.org
Example: Mark Banks 47 WWW.swis.org
Example: Mark Banks Math Class 48 WWW.swis.org
Example: Mark Banks 49 WWW.swis.org
Example: Mark Banks 50 WWW.swis.org