CHAPTER 7 ETHNICITY
What is Ethnicity? • What is ethnicity? How is it different than race? • Ethnicity – cultural • Race - biological • Ethnic groups are tied to particular places • Cultural traits derive from conditions and practiced in that homeland
DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN ETHNICITY & RACE • Race – transmitted genetically from parents to children • Ethnicity – derived from “distinctive features of particular places on the Earth’s surface” • Why is skin color important to geographers? • African American = a group with an extensive cultural tradition (does not mean black – ex. Miles) • Black = skin color (does not mean African American) • African American and blacks are not the same • Most black Americans descend from Africa (black race does equal African-American ethnicity for them) • Some blacks descend from non-African regions (black race does not equal African American ethnicity for them) • Hispanic/Latino is an ethnic group, not a race (choose white, black, other) • Asian as a race and Asian-American as an ethnicity
ISSUE #1 Where are Ethnicities Distributed?
ETHNICITIES IN THE U.S. • 2 largest are Hispanics (14%) and African American (12%) • Clustering of ethnicities based on scale • Regional , city, and within cities (neighborhoods) • Trend of concentration in neighborhoods over the course of the 20th century?
CONCENTRATION cont. REGIONAL CITY African Americans are highly clustered within cities (more than half live in cities) - ex. Detroit Hispanics – similar to that of African Americans in northern cities Mixed in states with largest H population (CA and TX) • African Americans – SE • Hispanics – SW • Asian Americans – West • American Indians – SW and Plains
African-Americans in the U.S. Fig. 7-1: The highest percentages of African Americans are in the rural South and in northern cities.
Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Fig. 7-2: The highest percentages of Hispanic Americans are in the southwest and in northern cities.
Asian Americans in the U.S. Fig. 7-3: The highest percentages of Asian Americans are in Hawaii and California.
Native Americans in the U.S. Fig. 7-4: The highest percentages of Native Americans are in parts of the plains, the southwest, and Alaska.
Ethnicities in Chicago Fig. 7-5: African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and European Americans are clustered in different areas of the city.
Ethnicities in Los Angeles Fig. 7-6: Hispanic, white, African American, and Asian areas in and around Los Angeles.
AFRICAN AMERICAN MIGRATION PATTERNS • You are responsible for this section, read it and refer to your 20% summary sheet. • Immigration from Africa to the colonies in the 18th century • Immigration from to U.S. South to northern cities during the first half of the 20th century • Immigration from inner city ghettos to urban neighborhoods in the second half of the 20th century and early 21st century
WHAT RACE ARE YOU? • White • Black, African American, or Negro • American Indian or Alaska Native • Asian India • Chinese • Filipino • Japanese • Korean • Vietnamese • Other Asian • Native Hawaiian • Guamanian for Chamorro • Samoan • Other Pacific Islander • Other Race
RACE IN THE U.S. • 14 races on last U.S. census (75% white, 12% black, 4% Asian, 1% American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.1% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 6% some other race)
SEPARATE BUT EQUAL • U.S. has a history of discouraging spatial interaction between races (past by law, today through discrimination) • Plessy v. Ferguson establishes separate but equal in the 1890s • Led to Jim Crow Laws (see examples) • School segregation video (next slide) • Brown v. Board of Education ended (at least legally) separate but equal in the 1950s • Led to “white flight” • What is blockbusting?
SOUTH AFRICA - APARTHEID • Apartheid – a legal system in South Africa that created the physical separation of different races into different geographic areas • Repealed in the 1990s (look at pp.228-230 and the worksheet)
Black “Homelands” in South Africa Fig. 7-10: During the apartheid era, South Africa created a series of black “homelands” with the expectation that every black would be a citizen of one of them. These were abolished with the end of apartheid.
KI#1 Review Questions 1. This is the identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor 2. Define ethnicity. 3. What are the two largest ethnicities in the U.S. and what are their percentages? 4. The largest percentage of Hispanics come from ______ 5. List the three major migration flows for African Americans. 6. True/False: “Asian” is recognized as a race and an ethnicity, while Hispanic is only considered an ethnicity, but not a race. 7. Ethnicity is important to geographers because its characteristics derive from the distinctive features of what? 8. What is really the only feature of race that matters to geographers and why? 9. What doctrine led to very little spatial interaction among whites and non-whites in the U.S. until the 1950s/1960s? 10. What legal system in South Africa created the physical separation of different races into different geographic areas until the early 1990s?
KI#1 Review Questions 1. This is the identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor - Race 2. Define ethnicity. – identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth. 3. What are the two largest ethnicities in the U.S. and what are their percentages? Hispanic at 14% of total pop.; Afr.-Am. at 12% 4. The largest percentage of Hispanics come from ______ (Mexico) 5. List the three major migration flows for African Americans. (From Africa to the colonies in the 18th century, from U.S. South to northern cities during the first half of the 20th century, from inner-city ghettos to other urban neighborhoods during the second half of the 20th century and first decade of the 21st century) 6. True/False: “Asian” is recognized as a race and an ethnicity, while Hispanic is only considered an ethnicity, but not a race. True 7. Ethnicity is important to geographers because its characteristics derive from the distinctive features of what? Particular places on Earth 8. What is really the only feature of race that matters to geographers and why? Skin color because it is the basis for which people in many societies are organized/sorted out in places such as school, neighborhoods, recreation…. 9. What doctrine led to very little spatial interaction among whites and non-whites in the U.S. until the 1950s/1960s? Separate but Equal 10. What legal system in South Africa created the physical separation of different races into different geographic areas until the early 1990s? Apartheid
KI#2 Review Questions • Define nationality. • True/False: All Americans are part of a nationality and race but only some choose to identify with an ethnicity. • A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality is called a ___ • How do most countries view independent mass media? • Define multi-ethnic state. • The United Kingdom and the former Soviet Union are good examples of multi-ethnic or multinational sates? • The Soviet Union broke up into ____ newly independent countries, which break down into these five groups. • _________ is the largest multinational state. • This area, consisting of Sunni Muslims, has been particularly troublesome for Russia. • By the late 20th century, in much of Europe, __________ identity once again became more important that nationality.
KI#2 Review Questions • Define nationality. Identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country • True/False: All Americans are part of a nationality and race but only some choose to identify with an ethnicity. True • A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality is called a ___ Nation-state 4. How do most countries view independent mass media? As a threat/risk to the stability of their government • Define multi-ethnic state. A state that contains more than one ethnicity • The United Kingdom and the former Soviet Union are good examples of multi-ethnic or multinational sates? Multinational states • The Soviet Union broke up into ____ newly independent countries, which break down into these five groups. 15, Baltic, European, Central Asian, Caucasus, Russia • _________ is the largest multinational state. Russia • This area, consisting of Sunni Muslims, has been particularly troublesome for Russia. Chechnya • By the late 20th century, in much of Europe, __________ identity once again became more important that nationality. Ethnic
ISSUE #3 Why do Ethnicities Clash?
WHY DO THEY CLASH? • To dominate the national identity (different ethnicities fighting in the same country) 2. Ethnicities are divided among more than one state
ETHNIC COMPETITION TO DOMINATE NATIONALITY • Especially prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa • Particularly the Horn of Africa and central Africa • Examples include Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Lebanon, Somalia
Ethnicity in the Horn of Africa Fig. 7-14: There have been numerous inter-ethnic civil conflicts in the countries of the Horn of Africa (including the Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia).
Refugee Camp in Darfur, Sudan Farmers from Darfur in western Sudan have been chased from their homes by agents of the Sudanese government.
DIVIDING ETHNICITIES AMONG MORE THAN ONE STATE • Newly independent countries are often created to separate two ethnicities (rarely segregated completely) • When an ethnicity is split among more than one country conflict may result • Examples include India/Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the Kurds
Ethnic Division of South Asia Fig. 7-16: At independence in 1947, British India was divided into India and Pakistan, resulting in the migration of 17 million people and many killings. In 1971, after a brutal civil war, East Pakistan became the country of Bangladesh.
DIVISION OF INDIA HISTORY CONSEQUENCE Led to the forced migration of millions as they moved to the new countries (many killed) Kashmir – neither India or Pakistan agreed on the line running through this region that separates them (much debate and violence) • British colony from early 1800s – 1947 • Split into two countries (India for Hindus, Pakistan for Muslims) • In 1971 East Pakistan became Bangladesh
Train Station in Amritsar, India, October, 1947 The station is filled with Hindu refugees who have fled from the new country of Pakistan.
Jammu and Kashmir Fig. 7-17: Although its population is mainly Muslim, much of Jammu and Kashmir became part of India in 1947. India and Pakistan have fought two wars over the territory, and there has been a separatist insurgency in the area.
Sinhalese & Tamils in Sri Lanka Fig.7-18: The Sinhalese are mainly Buddhist and speak an Indo-European language, while the Tamils are mainly Hindu and speak a Dravidian language.
ISSUE #4 What is Ethnic Cleansing?
WORLD WAR II • Largest levels of forced migration occurred during WWII • During the 1990s the term ethnic cleansing emerged (process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region) • EC is not traditional armies fighting each other, it is the use of all means to remove every member of the other group (men, women, children, elderly….) 1939-1945
Forced Migrations after World War Two Fig. 7-19: Territorial changes after World War II resulted in many migrations, especially by Poles, Germans, and Russians.
YUGOSLAVIA • Located on the Balkan Peninsula • Yugoslavia was created after WWI to unite several different ethnicities • Tito – governed Yugoslavia from 1953-1980 (“Yugoslavia has seven neighbors, six republics, five nationalities, four languages, three religions, two alphabets, and one dinar”) • Economy held them together
The Balkans in 1914 Fig. 7-20: The northern part of the Balkans was part of Austria-Hungary in 1914, while much of the south was part of the Ottoman Empire. The country of Yugoslavia was created after World War I.
DESTRUCTION OF MULTI-ETHNIC YUGOSLAVIA • Ethnic rivalries and fighting emerge after Tito’s death in the 1980s, the country breaks up • New countries – Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia, Serbia, Montenegro (many not happy with the new boundaries and/or division of ethnicities) • This led to horrific ethnic cleansing • Exs. – Bosnia &Herzegovina, Kosovo
Ethnic Regions in Yugoslavia Fig. 7-22: Yugoslavia until its breakup in 1992. Yugoslavia’s six republics until 1992 included much ethnic diversity. Brutal ethnic cleansing occurred in Bosnia, Croatia, and Kosovo during the civil wars of the 1990s.
BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA • Population consisted of Bosnian Muslims(48%), Serb (37%) and Croat (14%) • Serbs and Croats fought to unite their areas with the countries of Serbia and Croatia • To achieve this they carried out ethnic cleansing (1990s) of Bosnian Muslims, especially the Serbs against Bosnian Muslims (why?) • 1996 – B&H is divided into three regions, Serbs end up getting about half the country (they only made up 1/3 of the population)
KOSOVO • After gaining independence Serbia launched a campaign to control the province of Kosovo (1990s) • Led to Serbian ethnic cleansing of the Albanian Muslim population • 750,000 of 2 million Albanians forced to flee to refugee camps • NATO launches air attacks against Serbia until Serbia withdrew
Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo Fig. 7-1.1: Aerial photography helped document the stages of ethnic cleansing in western Kosovo in 1999.
BALKANIZATION– p.247 • Understand what this process is and why it is important