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Chapter 7 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

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  1. Chapter 7 Section2 Political and Economic Challenges

  2. THE PRACTICE OF GIVING GOVERNMENT POSITITIONS TO POLITICAL SUPORTERS WAS THE ACCEPTED WAY OF STAFFING FEDERAL OFFICES • BETWEEN 1877 AND 1900 INACTION AND POLITICAL CORRUPTION CHARACTERIZED THE POLITICAL SCENE DURING THE GILDED AGE The Spoils System

  3. Spoils System • Winning Presidential candidate gave government jobs to supporters • Began with Andrew Jackson • Rationale for system: • - Gov’t remains responsive to the people • - Assured loyalty to the President • - Increases party support

  4. Stalemate • ONLY TWICE BETWEEN 1877 AND 1897 DID EITHR THE REPUBLICANS OR DEMOCRATS GAIN CONTROL OF THE WHITE HOUSE AND BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS AT THE SAME TIME – MADE IT VERY DIFFICULT TO PASS NEW LAWS • PRESIDENTS OF THE GILDED AGE WERE WEAK: • 1. THEY WON BY SLIM MARGINS • 2.SEEMED TO LACK INTEGRITY

  5. Stalemate • RUTHERFORD B. HAYES OWED HIS ELECTION TO A SECRET DEAL

  6. Stalemate • BENJAMIN HARRISON BECAME ONLY THE SECOND PRIESIDENT IN HISTORY TO LOSE THE POPULAR VOTE BUT WIN THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE

  7. Stalemate • CHESTER ARTHUR BECAME PRESIDENT AFTER GARFIELD’S ASSASSINATION BUT DID NOT WIN HIS PARTY’S NOMINATION IN THE FOLLOWING ELECTION

  8. Stalemate • PRESIDENT WITH MOST INTEGRITY DURING THIS ERA: GROVER CLEVELAND – IN 1884 HE BECAME THE FIRST DEMOCRAT TO WIN THE WHITE HOUSE IN 24 YEARS

  9. POLITICAL CARTOONISTS EXPRESSED THEIR CONCERN ABOUT THE DAMAGING EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION AND BIG MONEY • POLITICAL PARTIES AND THE SPOILS SYSTEM WERE CENTRAL COMPONENTS OF POLITICS DURING THE GILDED AGE – SPOILS SYSTEM FIRST USED BY ANDREW JACKSON – PRESIDENT FROM TENNESSEE Corruption The Bosses of the Senate

  10. Civil Service Reform • THE SPOILS SYSTEM PROMPTED A NUMBER OF PROMINENT FIGURES TO PROMOTE CIVIL SERVICE REFORM – GIVING PEOPLE JOBS BASED ON THEIR EXPERTISE NOT WHICH PARTY THEY BELONGED TO

  11. Civil Service Reform • CIVIL SERVICE– IS A SYSTEM THAT INCLUDES • FEDERAL JOBS IN THE • EXECUTIVE BRANCH

  12. Civil Service Reform • REFORMING THE SPOILS SYSTEM CAUSED CONTROVERSY – POLITICIANS FELT THEY COULD NOT ATTRACT THE PEOPLE NEEDED TO RUN THEIR PARTIES • INDEPENDENT ATTEMPTS BY POLITICIANS TO CHANGE THE SYSTEM FAILED • REPUBLICAN PARTY DID NOT SUPPORT REFORM EFFORTS

  13. Civil Service Reform • THE ASSASSINATION OF JAMESGARFIELD WAS THE REASON FOR THE SUPPORT OF REFORM – HE WAS ASSASSINATED BY CHARLES J.GUITEAU – HE WAS ANGRY BECAUSE HE BELIEVED THE REPUBLICAN PARTY FAILED TO GIVE HIM A GOVERNMENT JOB HE HAD BEEN PROMISED

  14. CHESTER ARTHUR – GARFIELD’S SUCCESSOR – SUPPORTED THE MOVEMENT FOR CIVIL SERVICE REFORM • ARTHUR SIGNED THE PENDLETON CIVIL SERVICE ACTWHICH ESTABLISHED A CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION – WHICH WROTE A CIVIL SERVICE EXAM – PEOPLE WHO WANTED TO WORK FOR THE GOVERNMENT HAD TO TAKE THE EXAM – GETTING A JOB DEPENDED ON HOW WELL AN INDIVIDUAL DID ON THE EXAM

  15. Economic Issues • THE TARIFF AND MONETARY POLICY WERE CRITICAL ECONOMIC ISSUES DURING THE GILDED AGE – DIVIDED DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS • INDEPENDENT POLITICAL PARTIES DISAGREED WITH THE MAJOR PARTY’S COMMITMENT TO THE GOLD STANDARD – USING GOLD FOR THE NATIONS CURRENCY

  16. Tariffs • ISSUES OVER TARIFFS DIVIDED • DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS – • BECAME A MAJOR ISSUE DURING • THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF • 1888

  17. Tariffs • THE REPUBLICANS FAVORED HIGH TARIFFS BECAUSE IT WOULD ALLOW AMERICAN INDUSTRY TO GROW AND PROMOTE JOBS IN MANUFACTURING • THE DEMOCRATS WERE AGAINST HIGH TARIFFS BECAUSE IT INCREASED THE COST OF GOODS TO CONSUMERS AND MADE IT HARDER FOR AMERICAN FARMERS TO SELL THEIR GOODS