First Aid ◊ The immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care can be provided. ◊ Check the surrounding environment. ◊ Your safety is the 1st priority!
C’s of Emergency Care Check – Call - Care ◊ Check the victim for life-threatening conditions. Only move the victim if he/she is in direct physical danger. ◊ Call 911. Leave the scene if necessary. ◊ Care for the victim. Ask permission to help. Unconsciousness implies consent.
Good Samaritan Laws ◊ Statutes (laws) that protect rescuers from being sued for giving emergency care ◊ You may not provide care beyond your level of training ◊ You must be acting in the best interest of the victim
Universal Precautions ◊ Steps taken to prevent the spread of disease through blood and other bodily fluids. ◊ Chemical resistant gloves (usually latex) ◊ Wash hands immediately after providing First Aid ◊ Use mouth piece or rescue mask when providing rescue breathing/CPR.
Types of Wounds Abrasion: (scrape) Injury to the top layer of skin. Chief concern is bacterial infection. Clean and protect.
Types of Wounds Laceration: (cut) caused by sharp objects slicing through skin. Severe lacerations may require stitches and a tetanus booster.
Types of Wounds Punctures: A small but deep hole caused by a sharp narrow object. High risk of infection. Usually does not cause heavy bleeding.
Types of Wounds Avulsions: Occurs when skin or tissue is partly or completely torn away. If possible wrap the severed body part in a sterile, cold, moist towel to preserve the tissue.
Controlling Bleeding ◊ Raise wound above the level of the heart. ◊ Cover with sterile gauze or cloth. ◊ Use direct pressure to stop the bleeding ◊ Once bleeding stops secure gauze with a bandage. Seek medical attention if needed.
Types of Burns ◊ First degree burns: Involves the outermost layer of skin (epidermis). ◊ Redness, Swelling and Pain ◊ About 1 week healing time
Types of Burns ◊Second degree burns: Involves epidermis and underlying layers of skin (dermis). Skin becomes very red, swollen, and develops blisters
Types of Burns ◊Third degree burns: Involve all layers of skin. The skin may be charred black or appear white & dry. The burn may damage nerve cells so the victim may not experience pain.
First Aid for 1st & Minor 2nd Degree Burns ◊ Cool the burned area by holding under cold running water for 5 minutes. Wrap in cold wet cloths. Do not use ice! ◊ Cover the burn loosely with sterile gauze. ◊3rd degree burns require immediate medical attention – Call 911
Chain of Survival ◊ A sequence of actions that maximize the victim’s chances of survival ◊ Survey the scene ◊ Check the victim for consciousness ◊ Call 911 (if needed) ◊ Provide necessary Care 3 C’s
CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) ◊ A first aid procedure that combines rescue breathing and chest compressions to supply oxygen to the body. ◊ Defibrillator: A device that delivers an electrical shock to the heart to restore normal its normal rhythm. (Automated External Defibrillator - AED)
CPR for Adults ◊Survey the scene ◊Check for Consciousness (Are you OK!) ◊Call 911 ◊CABs ◊Chest Compressions ◊Airway ◊Breathing
CPR for Adults ◊Perform 30 chest compressions first ◊Followed by 2 breaths of air– repeat this process until more advance medical help arrives. Stayin Alive
CPR for Infants and Children (under 8 years old) ◊Children ◊Give shallower breaths ◊Give compressions with heel of one hand on the sternum. ◊2 breaths:30 compression
CPR for Infants and Children (under 8 years old) ◊Infants ◊Take pulse on brachial artery ◊Give shallower breaths (puff of air) ◊Give compressions with middle & ring finger ◊30 Compression: 2 breaths
First Aid for Choking ◊ Conscious adult ◊ Stand behind victim, wrap arms around their waist. ◊ Make a fist with one hand and grasp it with your other hand. ◊ Quick upward thrust. “J” shape movement ◊ Repeat until object is dislodged.
First Aid for Choking ◊ Unconscious adult: ◊ Lower victim to the ground and try to clear airway. ◊ Reach into mouth and sweep object out with one finger. ◊ If object can not be dislodged, begin CPR. Chest compressions may dislodge object.
First Aid for Choking ◊ If you are Alone: ◊ Perform abdominal thrust on yourself. ◊ Position abdomen over rigid structure (countertop, back of chair). ◊ Press against the object to thrust your abdomen upward and inward.
First Aid for Shock ◊ A life threatening condition which the heart is not delivering and adequate supply of blood to the body. ◊ Symptoms include: cold, clammy skin that may appear pale or grayish. Weak, rapid pulse and altered breathing. Dilated pupils. Weakness, confusion, or loss of consciousness.
First Aid for Shock ◊ Call 911 ◊ Lie the victim down and raise feet 12 inches. Keep warm. ◊ Loosen constricting clothing, and keep calm. Roll victim to side if they begin to vomit. ◊ Do not give victim anything to eat or drink. Do not move victim if you suspect an injury to the head, neck, or spine.
Muscle & Joint Injuries ◊ Strain: A tear in the muscle or tendon . ◊ Sprain: An injury to the ligaments around a joint. ◊ Symptoms include pain, stiffness, swelling, limited mobility, and bruising around the area.
Muscle & Joint Injuries (P.R.I.C.E.) ◊Protect-wrap with bandage or splint ◊Rest-rest injured area for at least 1 day. ◊Ice-to reduce swelling and pain. 10-15 minutes, three times a day. ◊Compress-wrap firmly with a bandage. ◊Elevate-raise above the heart.
Fractures & Dislocations ◊Fracture: A break in a bone Tibial Fracture & Fibular Fracture Humeral Fracture
Fractures & Dislocations ◊Dislocations: a separation of a bone from its normal position in a joint. Dislocated elbow
Fractures & Dislocations ◊Symptoms of fractures and dislocations include pain, stiffness, swelling, limited mobility, and bruising around the area.
First Aid for Fractures & Dislocations ◊Call 911. Keep victim still & calm ◊If skin is broken rinse to prevent infection. ◊Cover with sterile dressing. ◊Immobilize area. ◊Apply ice. ◊If injury doesn’t affect head, neck, legs, or spine…Treat for Shock.
Unconsciousness ◊Unconsciousness is the condition of not being alert or aware of surroundings. ◊ Risk of choking. ◊ Call 911. ◊Use “Recovery Position” if victim is breathing and you do not suspect head, neck, or spine injury.
Fainting ◊Occurs when not enough blood is flowing to the brain. ◊ Try to prevent victim from falling. ◊ Lay victim on the floor and elevate legs. Loosen tight or constricting clothes. ◊ If the person vomits, roll him/her into the “Recovery Position”
Fainting ◊ If victim doesn’t regain consciousness within few minutes…Call 911 ◊ If the victim regains consciousness keep the person lying still for at least 10-15 minutes.
Concussion ◊ A jarring injury to the brain that can cause unconsciousness. (Bruise on the brain) ◊ Symptoms include: memory loss, confusion, and pupils that are non-reactive to light. If present…Call 911