Emotional intelligence BOH4M: Leadership
Key Theorists • Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer • defined the concept • Daniel Goleman • applied it to leadership performance, and outlined it in more detail • It’s worth noting that this theory is fairly recent – the term “emotional intelligence” first appeared in the mid 1980s, and Salovey, Mayer, and Goleman’s work didn’t emerge until the 1990s.
What is it? • Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability of people to manage themselves and their relationships effectively • A leader’s EI significantly influences his or her effectiveness, especially in senior management positions
5 Components • Self-awareness • the ability to understand one’s own moods and emotions, and understand their impact one’s work and on others. • Self-regulation • the ability to think before acting, and to control impulses. • Motivation • the ability to work hard with persistence. • Empathy • the ability to understand the emotions of others. • Social skill • the ability to build good relationships.
Quiz: Emotional Intelligence • For each of the following scenarios, indicate your response (multiple choice)
Question 1 • You’re in a meeting in which executives are discussing the company’s ERP implementation when the VP of supply chain takes credit for work you did. What do you do?
Question 1 • Confront the VP right then and there. After all, you’re no pushover, and it’s not fair that he get the credit you deserve. • After the meeting, take the VP aside and tell him that you would appreciate it if in the future he would credit you when speaking about the work. • You don’t do anything. You hate conflict, and you know nothing would be gained either by making a scene or by confronting the VP. • After the VP speaks, thank him for the work he did and give the group more specific details about what you were trying to accomplish and the challenges you overcame.
Question 2 • The VP of marketing has just called to complain about the CRM system your IT staff is delivering. He is angry and rude. What’s your response?
Question 2 • Tell him to take a long walk off a short pier. You don’t have to put up with ill-informed nonsense. • Listen, repeat back to him what you hear he is feeling, and tell him you sympathize. • Explain how he’s being unfair. Help him understand that the system your department is working so hard on eventually will help him and his department. • Tell him you understand how frustrated his is, and offer a specific measure you can take to please him.
Question 3 • A colleague enters your office upset over an incendiary e-mail he received from a client. How do you go about calming him down?
Question 3 • Change the subject. Tell him a joke or a story?anything to get his mind off of it. • Suggest that he might be overreacting. • Take him out for a cup of coffee and tell him about the time something like this happened to you and how angry you felt, until you realized that the client’s anger was in fact justified. • Tell him you understand. You know that the client is a real jerk.
Question 4 • A discussion with a colleague has escalated into a full-blown argument, and you both start trading personal insults that you certainly don’t mean. What do you do?
Question 4 • Suggest taking a 20 minute break before continuing. • Walk away. • Apologize, and ask that your colleague apologize too. • Pause, collect your thoughts, then restate your case as unemotionally as you can.
Question 5 • You are asked to manage a team of developers that is building a new portal. The team has discovered a software bug but can’t come up with a solution. What do you do?
Question 5 • Draw up an agenda, and call a meeting during which you discuss the problem and possible solutions. • Organize an offsite to help the team get to know each other better. • Begin by asking each person for ideas about how to solve the problem. • Organize an informal brainstorming session over lunch. Encourage people to share whatever solution comes to mind, no matter how wild.
Question 6 • One of your programmers has been promoted to a managerial position. You notice that she appears unable to make the simplest decisions without seeking your advice. What do you do?
Question 6 • Have an HR representative talk with her about where she sees her future in the organization. Maybe this position isn’t right for her. • Accept the fact that she does not have what it takes and find others to assume her responsibilities until you can find a replacement. • Give her lots of difficult, complex decisions to make so that she will become more confident in her role. • Engineer an ongoing series of manageable experiences for her, and make yourself available to act as her mentor.
Question 7 • One of your direct reports approaches you with a personal problem: His elderly parent needs care and possibly placement in a nursing home. What do you do?
Question 7 • Tell him that you’re sorry and that he can come to you for advice or to commiserate anytime. • Acknowledge that family problems often take a toll, and ask him to be open with you if he’s having trouble completing his work so that you can find a way to lighten his load during this difficult time. • Suggest that work affords an excellent opportunity for him to take a mental break from his problems. • Tell him that the definition of a professional is someone who doesn’t allow his personal problems to affect his work.
Answer Key • A. 0 points B. 5 points C. 0 points D. 10 points • A. 0 points B. 5 points C. 0 points D. 10 points • A. 5 points B. 0 points C. 10 points D. 0 points • A. 10 points B. 0 points C. 0 points D. 0 points • A. 1 point B. 10 points C. 5 points D. 5 points • A. 5 points B. 0 points C. 0 points D. 10 points • A. 1 point B. 10 points C. 0 points D. 0 points
Fiedler’s Contingency Model • Effective leadership depends on • The traits of the leader • The situation faced by the leader
Fiedler’s Contingency Model • Leadership Traits • High score = relationship oriented • Low score = task oriented
Fiedler’s Contingency Model • Situational factors: • Leader-member relations - The degree to which the leaders is trusted and liked by the group members, and the willingness of the group members to follow the leader’s guidance • Task structure - The degree to which the group’s task has been described as structured or unstructured, has been clearly defined and the extent to which it can be carried out by detailed instructions • Position power - The power of the leader by virtue of the organizational position and the degree to which the leader can exercise authority on group members in order to comply with and accept his direction and leadership
Fiedler’s Contingency Model Conclusions: - in favourable situations (positive relations, structure tasks, strong position power) and in unfavourable situations, task oriented leaders are best - In intermediate situations, relationship oriented leaders are best
Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation Model Who has the information/expertise? Acceptance critical for implementation? Time pressure for decision making? Authority decision Consultative decision Group decision
Charismatic Leadership • These leaders tend to generate almost instantaneous trust amongst their followers • They earn their leadership not because they hold an important position in a company or government but because of their ability to attract followers naturally. • Examples: Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Adolf Hitler
Business and Charisma • A charismatic leader is an excellent choice for a business that is forced to dramatically change its vision. • A charismatic leader is able to inspire and motivate its employees to readily accept this change. • A major problem with charismatic leaders is finding a successor to carry on the same vision with as much fervor and desire.
Transformational Leadership • Inspiring others in order to achieve change • Steps: • Developing the vision • Selling the vision • Finding the way forwards • Leading the charge