PBIS Coaches Conference October 2010 Lisa Bates, Sally Helton, Jon Potter, Tammy Rasmussen & Dean Richards
Objectives • Understand the critical elements of secondary MTI • core instruction, screening and progress monitoring, interventions, meetings • Understand the barriers of developing and implementing a MTI system at the secondary level
CONSENSUS INFRASTRUCTURE CONSENSUS IMPLEMENTATION CONSENSUS INFRASTRUCTURE The Process is Ongoing and Long-Term
So how do we make this happen? Interventions Progress Monitoring Decision rules and reading protocol Core Curriculum with strong instruction Universal screener Data based teaming Leadership Professional Development
Core Objectives • Define core program • Examine the research on successful secondary core programs • Look at real life solutions • Consider barriers and possible solutions
Research on Secondary Literacy IES Practice Guide Reading Next
RTI vs. MTI • Multi tiered instructional approach would fit in any subject, however, most consider reading and math the fundamental skills. • Students are not eligible for Special Education services in Science, Social Studies, ect. • Behavior impacts it all!
Why reading? • More than 8 million students in grades 4 – 12 are struggling readers (USDoE 2003) • 40% of high school students cannot read well enough to benefit from their textbooks (NAEP). • 69 percent of 8th grade students fall below the proficient level in their ability to comprehend the meaning of text at their grade level (NAEP.)
Differences in Learning to ReadEstimates from NICHD research (NC Dept. of Public Education)
Big 5 of Reading • Phonemic Awareness • Phonics • Fluency • Vocabulary • Comprehension
Core program The research based curriculum and instruction across all classes that allows students to access and respond to text across content areas.
Resistance • Some teachers adjust the assignment and content rather than help learn to read Schoenbach et al. (1999). • Some content-area teachers expressed resistance to teaching reading. Darwin (2003). • Some teachers just want to cover content unaware that helping them to read would help them understand content. Kingery (2000); O’Brien, Moje, and Stewart (2001)
So. . . we adopt a new way of thinking about: • Time and schedules • Students • Curriculum • Teamwork
A fundamental philosophical shift We teach students, not subjects!
Another way to say it. . . We teach literacy, not literature. -Kelly Gallaghar
Reading Next Infrastructure recommendation • Extended time for literacy • Professional development • Ongoing summative assessment of students and programs • Teacher teams • Leadership • A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program
Reading Next Time recomendation • Extended time for literacy, which includes approximately two to four hours of literacy instruction and practice that takes place in language arts and content-area classes
It’s not all about English class! • We don’t have 2 to 4 hours of English class. • English class = • Literature • Writing • Discussions • What else???
Non-fiction text needs Informational text accounts for ___% of reading done by adults. Standardized tests are up to ___% informational text. 86 85
IES Recommendations Recommendation 1Provide Explicit Vocabulary InstructionLevel of Evidence: Strong
Dedicate a portion of each regular classroom lesson to explicit vocabulary instruction.
Use repeated exposure to new words in multiple oral and written contexts and allow sufficient practice opportunities.
Give sufficient opportunities to use new vocabulary in a variety of contexts through activities such as discussions, writing, and extended reading.
Provide students with strategies to make them independent vocabulary learners.
Implications for vocabulary development: • ESTABLISHED READERS: Learn about 3000 words per year by reading • POOR READERS: Could learn 300-500 words per year if provided explicit vocabulary instruction
Sample Vocabulary Strategies • Frayer Model • Definition word chart
Vocabulary Strategy Frayer Model Word
Vocabulary Strategy Plunder To rob of goods by force, especially in time of war; pillage. Surely the best way to meet the enemy is head on in the field and not wait till they plunder our very homes. -Oliver Goldsmith
Barriers and solutions • Teach vocabulary in a variety of ways and with multiple opportunities. • Students with limited vocabulary need the most frequent words taught. Teach words that carry the most meaning in the text. • Teaching vocabulary gives you more time because the reading carries meaning. • Students may vary in their response to different vocabulary instruction strategies. • Teachers may not know how to select words to teach, especially in content areas. • Teachers may perceive that they do not have time to teach vocabulary.
Reading NextComprehension Recommendation • Direct, explicit comprehension instruction, which is instruction in the strategies and processes that proficient readers use to understand what they read, including summarizing, keeping track of one’s own understanding, and a host of other practices
IES Recommendations Recommendation 1Provide Explicit Vocabulary InstructionLevel of Evidence: Strong Recommendation 2Provide Direct and Explicit Comprehension Strategy Instruction
Teachers should carefully select the text to use when first beginning to teach a given strategy.
Show students how to apply the strategies they are learning to different texts, not just one text.
Use direct and explicit instruction for teaching students how to use comprehension strategies.
Provide the appropriate amount of guided practice depending on the difficulty level of the strategies that the students are learning.
When teaching comprehension strategies, make sure students understand that the goal is to understand the content of the text.
Components of Effective Instruction • Overtly teaching each step through teacher modeling and many examples (Gradual Release Model). Explicit Systematic Practice and Feedback Application and Mastery
Components of Effective Instruction • Breaking lessons and activities into sequential, manageable steps that progress from simple to more complex concepts and skills. i.e. scope and sequence of program Explicit Systematic Practice and Feedback Application and Mastery
Components of Effective Instruction • Providing many opportunities for students to respond and demonstrate what they are learning, which may include teacher modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Explicit Systematic Practice and Feedback Application and Mastery
Components of Effective Instruction • Generalize what is learned in different contexts. We want students to apply the lessons to the next text they read. Explicit Systematic Practice and Mastery Application and Feedback
Reading Strategy England has a 4th of July. The 4th of July comes after the 3rd and before the 5th of July. A dog can only run half way into a forest. Once the dog reaches the ½ way point it is actually running out of the forest. If a plane crashes on the Canadian and US border, international law states that the survivors will be buried in the country of their nationality. You don’t bury survivors. Trivia adapted from “Forward Garden,” http://www.forwardgarden.com/forward/26311.html
Barriers and solutions • Use English teachers to help provide P.D. • Teaching comprehension strategies will improve content knowledge. • it‘s always about comprehension! • Most teachers lack the skills to provide direct and explicit comprehension strategy instruction. • Content-area teachers may believe that they are not responsible for teaching comprehension strategies to their students. • Some teachers and students may “lose the forest for the trees.”
IES Recommendations Recommendation 3Provide Opportunities for Extended Discussion of Text Meaning and Interpretation Level of Evidence: Moderate