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FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURES (Text page 9, 645 – 662) PowerPoint Presentation
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FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURES (Text page 9, 645 – 662)

FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURES (Text page 9, 645 – 662)

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FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURES (Text page 9, 645 – 662)

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  1. FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURES (Text page 9, 645 – 662)

  2. We often approximate structures as lines and planes whenever possible

  3. Three types of fundamental structures • CONTACTS between rock bodies (pages 645-656) Examples?????

  4. (CONFORMABLE contact, or was formed during continuous deposition) Sedimentary beds within a formation

  5. UNCONFORMABLE contacts (pages 645-649) Three types of unconformities Represent gaps in rock record

  6. Sandia Mountain, NM ~300 million year old limestone ~1400 million year old granite Nonconformity (page 647)

  7. Angular Unconformity (page 647) Siccar Point, Scotland

  8. http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/geophysical/Abbott/index.htmhttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/geophysical/Abbott/index.htm Disconformity (page 647)

  9. http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/geophysical/Abbott/index.htmhttp://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/geophysical/Abbott/index.htm

  10. Dike INTRUSIVE CONTACTS (pages 650-653)

  11. Sill

  12. See page 651, fig. B3

  13. FAULT CONTACTS (pages 653-654) http://libraryphoto.cr.usgs.gov/htmllib/btch205/btch205j/btch205z/wre00014.jpg

  14. SHEAR ZONE CONTACTS (pages 654-656) http://earth.leeds.ac.uk/shearzones/gallery/odhair.htm Faults and shear zones will show up as secondary structures later on

  15. PRIMARY STRUCTURES (pages 656-662) developed during rock formation

  16. Include: • Cross bedding • Graded bedding • Ripple marks • Mud cracks • Flow structures • Pillow structures… etc.

  17. SECONDARY STRUCTURES Developed after rock formation (NOW we’re talking!!!)

  18. We often approximate structures as lines and planes whenever possible

  19. ORIENTATIONS OF STRUCTURES (Pages 662 – 666) TREND (Azimuth or bearing with respect to north) Orientations of LINES in space (pages 663-664) PLUNGE (deviation from horizontal)

  20. Bearing Azimuth 315 045 N 45 E N 45 W 090 W E 270 S 45 W 225 S 45 E 135 180 S

  21. Orientation of PLANES can be defined by: • Strike and dip (pages 665-666) • Dip and line of dip/dip direction (ALWAYS perpendicular to the strike) • Orientation of at least two lines on the plane

  22. Orientation of a line on a plane can also be described as RAKE or PITCH (the acute angle between the line and the strike of the plane. Page 700)