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Pengantar pada Komunikasi-termediasi-komputer /Introduction to Computer-mediated Communication

Pengantar pada Komunikasi-termediasi-komputer /Introduction to Computer-mediated Communication

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Pengantar pada Komunikasi-termediasi-komputer /Introduction to Computer-mediated Communication

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  1. PengantarpadaKomunikasi-termediasi-komputer/Introduction to Computer-mediated Communication Oleh Ahmad RizaFaizalS.Sos; IMDLL. ahmad.riza@unila.ac.id Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  2. TujuanPerkuliahan • Memahamipengertiankomunikasi-termediasi-komputer • Mengetahuiteori-teori yang melandasikomunikasi-termediasi-komputer • Mengetahuiaplikasidarikomunikasitermediasikomputer Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  3. What is Computer-mediated Communication (CMC)? • Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) is any form of communication between two or more individual people who interact and/or influence each other via separate computers through the Internet or a network connection - using social software. CMC does not include the methods by which two computers communicate, but rather how people communicate via computers. Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  4. Another definitions: • A relatively new but rapidly growing form of interaction (Lee & Nass, 2002) • The process by which people create, exchange, and perceive information using computer systems that facilitate encoding, transmitting, and decoding messages (December, 2003) • The communication that takes place between people via the computer (Herring, 1996) • Interaction between two or more intelligent agents that relies on ICT—usually a personal computer and networks—as its primary medium (Ess, 2007) Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  5. CMC: at its broadest, at its smallest • At its broadest CMC can encompass virtually all computer uses (Santoro, 1995) • In general, the term CMC refers to both task-relatedand interpersonal communication conducted by computer. This includes communication both to and through a personal or mainframe computer.(Ferris, 1997) Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  6. HCI in 1960/70 Software psychology Cognitive science Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  7. HCI: years 90 and later Usability engineering Groupware and cooperative activity Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  8. CMC vs. HCI • In many ways, the difference between CMC and HCI are not fundamental differences. But they focus on different characteristics of new media technologies. • HCI focuses on characteristics of the technology and individual user’s psychological processes. • Interactivity • Presence • Cognition Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  9. CMC vs. HCI • CMC focuses on characteristics of the communicative environment and user interactions • Anonymity (being anonymous) • Synchronicity (real-time vs. delayed conversation) • Relationship development • Impression formation Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  10. Dimensions of CMC • Cue Richness • Amount of multisensory communication cues available to each participant • Decreasing Cue Richness example: full-motion A/V, graphics with audio, audio only, text with emoticons, text • Synchronicity • Synchronous – all participants acting simultaneously or within very short time window • Asynchronous – participant engages in communication at any time, without requiring simultaneous presence of other participants Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  11. Types of CMC • Asyncronous • Syncronous Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  12. Asyncronous Communication • Asynchronous activities are independent of real-time and are comprised of activities, such as, viewing a web page, composing an Electronic Mail (e-mail), watching a video clip, or dowloading a file. Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  13. Asyncronous CMC CMC can includeanything that is text -based, uses ICT as a technological base and can be used for twoway transmission of ideas. Examples of CMC can include: • emails • mailbases • shared network group folders • discussion boards (or fora/forums) • frequently updated hyperlinked webpages. Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  14. Synchronous Communication • Synchronous activities occur concurrently between two or more users including such real-time applications as chat rooms or instant messaging which allow users to interact simultaneously through text, audio, and video with other users located anywhere in the world. Synchronous CMC includes: • Chat • Instant messaging Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  15. Type vs Dimensions Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  16. Theories in CMC • Media Richness Theory • Reduced cues • Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE model) • Hyperpersonal Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  17. Media Richness Theory (Daft & Lengel, 1986) • The degree of richness of a communication medium is dependent on the capacity of the medium to process ambiguous communication • Richer media are more effective for equivocal tasks, and leaner media are better for unequivocal tasks • Primary assumption is the more the medium reproduces face-to-face communication, the more people will feel the other person is “real”. • Implication: higher bandwidth (information content), produces more feelings of presence and connection Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  18. Media Richness Theory • Media have different abilities to reduce ambiguity and uncertainty. People will most likely choose the medium that reduces these elements the most Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  19. Task-media Fit Hypothesis Suh (1999) explains the relationship between a task and media richness as follows: • When a medium is too rich for a task (choice of a product), inefficient communication can result due to the distraction of non-essential cues and information; and • When a medium is too lean for a task, then inefficient communication may result because insufficient cues and information are transmitted. Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  20. Reduced cues • Low ambiguity/uncertainty • High ambiguity/uncertainty • Face to face • Video conferencing • Telephone • Instant messaging • Letter • E-mail Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  21. Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) Theory • The lack of individuating information renders intragroup differences less salient, thereby facilitating group identification with the partners • The polarization thus enhanced attachment to the group accounts for increased social influence (Lea, Spears, & de Groot, 2001; Postmes, Spears, & Lea, 1999) Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  22. SIDE Theory • The ability of engaging in anonymous communication is believed to be a very important feature of CMC. • Different levels of anonymity • True anonymity • Visual anonymity • Perceived anonymity Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  23. SIDE Theory • Earlier research suggest that anonymity would lead to impersonal (depersonalized) communication • Anonymity and distance lead to a decrease in self-awareness • Decrease in self-awareness lead to deindividuation Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  24. SIDE Theory • What is self-awareness? • at any given moment, an individual’s attention can be directed either outward to the external environment toward things such as tasks, other people, or the social context, or directed inward to various aspects of the self (Duval & Wicklund, 1972). • The different features of the self can be categorized into two major parts (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975): • The public self • physical appearance, table manners, and accent. • the private self • personal beliefs, hidden inner feelings, thoughts, and memories that are covert to others including religious beliefs and childhood memories Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  25. SIDE Theory • Public Self-awareness • Attention is directed towards to the public aspects of the self • Public self-awareness has consistently been found to cause conformity towards perceived majority opinions (Duval & Wicklund, 1972; Froming, Walker, & Lopyan, 1982; Scheier & Carver, 1980; Wicklund & Duval, 1971) • It can be heightened by the presence of film or video cameras Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  26. SIDE Theory • Private Self-awareness • Attention is directed towards to those private aspects of the self • has been shown to cause individuals to be more aware of, and more responsive to, their emotions (Scheier, 1976; Scheier & Carver, 1977), and engage in more self-disclosure (Joinson, 2001).. • It can be heightened by the presence of a small mirror & self-portrait. Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  27. SIDE Theory • Theoretically, many explanations of both pro- and anti-social behaviors in computer-mediated communication (CMC) appear to hinge on changes in individual self-awareness. • Empirically, very few studies directly tested the effect of self-awareness on common outcomes of CMC research. • although self-awareness has been found to impact self-disclosure & persuasion in CMC (Joinson, 2001; Matheson & Zanna, 1988; 1989), • the reduction of social cues in CMC can decrease users’ overall self-awareness, leading to a state of deindividuation, thereby fostering interactions that are more task-oriented, impersonal, and in some cases even uninhibited and anti-normative. Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  28. SIDE Theory • Visual anonymity allows us to communicate with each other without worrying about many other social information (social identities) • Appearance • Skin color • Gender • Age • As a consequence, we tend to • Communicate more honestly with less bias • Communicate more freely with less social constraints • Focus on the tasks rather than the socio-emotional aspects of the conversation. Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  29. SIDE Theory • Deindividuation is good for decision making and corporate environment • Less influenced by power structure • Speak more freely and thus encourages creativity • Focusing on tasks and not bothered by social formality • Deindividuation is bad for social environment • Difficult to be personal • Conversation may become direct and cold (impersonal) Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  30. SIDE Theory • According to this perspective, deindividuation may not always be impersonal. • Just because a conversation is visually anonymous, it doesn’t mean that we don’t engage in self-regulation and monitoring • What is important is which social identity is salient at the moment Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  31. Hyperpersonal Communication in CMC • visual anonymity of CMC enables users to mask physical or behavioral cues that are undesirable, and selectively self-disclose more favorable information. • Thus, communication in CMC, due to anonymity, allow a person to strategically create an “ideal self” to present to the other person. Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  32. Hyperpersonal Communication in CMC • This allows communicators to carefully think about what to say, how to say it, and when to say it. • It also allows individuals to use their imagination to “idealize” the person whom they are talking to. • Thus, leading to intense social relationships beyond normal level (hyper-personal). Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  33. Hyperpersonal Theory (Joseph Walther) • Media providing fewer nonverbal and meta-linguistic cues provide more feelings of presence • People assume conversational partners are like themselves • May explain tendency to self-reveal inappropriately • Compared to ordinary face-to-face situations, a hyperpersonal message sender has a greater ability to strategically develop and edit self-presentation, enabling a selective and optimized presentation of oneself to others Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013

  34. TerimaKasihThank youTusentakkGrazie MilleAitahDomo Arigatou Pertekom Sem. Ganjil TA 2012/2013