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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

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  1. Chapter 4 The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Preparedness 4th Edition - 2011

  2. Preparedness • “A state of readiness to respond to a disaster, crisis, or any other type of emergency situation” • A theme throughout all Emergency Management • Predecessors: • Fallout shelters of the 1950s • Air raid wardens • Preparedness has advanced - billions dedicated each year to emergency preparedness • Capacity to respond and recover from emergency and disaster events is only built through planning, training, and exercising • Expansion of preparedness activities has led to an increased professionalism within the discipline

  3. The Preparedness Cycle • EM still in the early stages of its establishment • Draws heavily on existing external fields, including emergency medicine, fire suppression, public health, business risk management, and law enforcement, for core competencies • FEMA National Preparedness Directorate depicts planning as a four-step cycle

  4. Step 1: Planning • The cycle begins with the creation of various plans through with disaster response and recovery become possible • Planning is ambitious and requires significant effort to achieve the many tasks involved • Most often begins with the hazards risk assessment process • Involves a scooping of community vulnerability • Planning also involves resource and capability assessment

  5. Step 2: Organize / Equipment • Preparedness limited by: • Actual possession or access to the equipment needed to manage response requirements • The organization of people and agencies through which the necessary response and recovery tasks will take place • Several equipment categories (examples): • Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) • Communications equipment • Special search and rescue equipment • Equipment dictated by hazards / functions

  6. Step 3: Training • Training equates to ability • Training needed by: • Traditional emergency services • Elected officials responsible for key disaster-specific decisions • Businesses and nongovernmental organizations • Individuals

  7. Step 4: Exercise • Rare nature of emergency events means that few officials have experienced them first hand • Little applicable experience to rely upon when these events do manifest • Training provides experience, and includes: • Drills • Tabletop exercises • Functional exercises • Full scale exercises

  8. Step 5: Evaluation / Improvement • Takes lessons learned and applies them • Generally the product of two sources: • Exercise • Actual disaster experience • Disasters: • Show the full limits of an emergency management organization’s capabilities • Identify the highest benefit to cost ratio for future spending and dedication of time and staff resources • After Action Reporting (AAR) turn disaster experiences into lessons learned and the foundation of future planning cycles

  9. Mitigation vs. Preparedness • Mitigation: attempts to eliminate hazard risk by reducing either the likelihood or consequence components of the risk associated with the particular hazard • Preparedness: seeks to improve the abilities of agencies and individuals to response to the consequences of a disaster event once the disaster event has occurred • Preparedness assumes the occurrence of an event, whereas mitigation attempts to prevent the event altogether.

  10. The EOP • Playbook by which response operations are conducted • Not just a documentation of what will be done and by whom, but rather the process by which these factors are determined • Planning process is also cyclical • Standard paradigm of design • The Base Plan • Functional Annexes • Hazard or Situational Annexes • Nationwide planning efforts guided CPG-101 • States may use their own planning convention

  11. Evacuation Planning • For many communities, evacuation is one of the most important planning considerations • Events with and without pre-disaster warning • Planning required to determine: activation procedures, routes, transportation methods, destinations, security, adherence, facilitation, and more • Few communities have conducted a full-scale test • Katrina and Rita highlighted shortfalls in existing plans • DOT study found 7 key elements to measure plans, including: Decision Making/Management, Planning, Communication/Preparedness, Special Needs, Operations, Sheltering, Training/Exercises

  12. Special Needs Populations • Planning traditionally looked at a homogenous population • Many individuals have special needs that must be considered by emergency planners • Without such consideration, plans are likely to fail • No set criteria that makes a person special needs • Community must assess their own population to determine special needs, and how to meet them • Must work with representatives

  13. Preparedness Equipment • EM organizations rely upon a diverse range of equipment to respond • During preparedness phase: • Equipment needs are identified • Equipment is purchased • Staff are trained in the use of the equipment required to meet anticipated response requirements • Federal Government facilitates acquisitions at the State / local levels through grants • Authorized Equipment List (AEL)

  14. Education and Training • Have always been a integral to the emergency services • Firefighters = fire academy • Police = police academy • EMS officials = public and private sources • A revolution in EM education and training • Coincided with the 1979 creation of FEMA • Development of the practice as a profession • Higher education component emerged • 9/11 events transformed emergency management training and education

  15. EMI • EMI mission: “[Provide] a nationwide training program of resident courses and nonresident courses to enhance U.S. emergency management practices.” • 10,000 attend resident courses and 100,000 participate in non-resident programs each year • 150,000 participate in EMI-supported exercises • Hundreds of thousands use EMI distance learning programs

  16. NationalFireAcademy • Mission: “Through its courses and programs, the National Fire Academy works to enhance the ability of fire and emergency services and allied professionals to deal more effectively with fire and related emergencies.” • NFA has trained more than 1.4 million students • Programs target middle- and top-level officers, fire service instructors, technical professionals, and representatives from allied professions

  17. Public Education • Difficult component of preparedness • Also called risk communication • Air raid drills brought widespread behavior change • Two reasons for difficulty: • Most campaigns conducted without social marketing background • Competing daily risks faced by the public • FEMA “Ready.gov” • Get a Kit • Make a Plan • Stay Informed • Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) 

  18. Exercises • After plan developed, equipment purchased, and personnel are trained • Allow evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the plan and its components and test involved systems, facilities, and personnel • Conducted at all levels of government and in the private sector • Four types of exercises: • full-scale • partial-scale • Functional • Tabletop • HSEEP allows evaluation

  19. Evaluation and Improvement • Several programs allow evaluation of EM: • Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP) • The State Preparedness Report (SPR) • The Target Capabilities List (TCL) • The NIMS Compliance Assistance Support Tool (NIMSCAST) • Disaster Emergency Communications (DEC) Project • The Comprehensive Assessment System (CAS) • Certified Emergency Manager (CEM) program

  20. A National Effort • FEMA National Preparedness (NP) Directorate drives national-level strategy • PKEMRA led to creation of NP in 2007 • NP has wide leverage to develop and institute preparedness programs that include: • Training courses • National policy development and state/local policy guidance • Planning and conduct of exercises  • Requirements guided by the NRF • March 2005 - DHS released the Interim National Preparedness Goal

  21. National Preparedness Guidelines • The National Preparedness Vision • The National Planning Scenarios • The Universal Task List (UTL) • The Target Capabilities List (TCL) Two other programs: • The Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program (REPP) • The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)

  22. NP Components • Preparedness Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPPA) • Technological Hazards Division (THP) • National Integration Center (NIC) • The Community Preparedness Division • The Preparedness Coordination Division

  23. Preparedness Grant Programs • Buffer Zone Protection Program (BZPP)Driver's License Security Grant Program (DLSGP)   • Emergency Management Performance Grant Program (EMPG)   • Emergency Operations Center (EOC) Grant Program  • The Homeland Security Grant Program (HSGP), which includes: • State Homeland Security Program (SHSP) • Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) • The Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) Program • Citizen Corps Program (CCP) • Operation Stonegarden (OPSG) • Interoperable Emergency Communications Grant Program (IECGP) • Intercity Passenger Rail (Amtrak)   • Intercity Bus Security Grant Program (IBSGP) • Port Security Grant Program (PSGP) • Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program (RCPGP)

  24. Business Continuity Planning • The process by which businesses prepare for disasters by identifying the risks to their business processes, their facilities, their people, and their information, and take action to reduce that risk • Includes identification and enactment of the processes by which businesses are able to continue to function during periods of disaster • Increases community-wide resilience • First began with the information age, focused primarily on information storage and retrieval • Concept has evolved

  25. BCP Continued • Since 9/11, many of the changes that have occurred in the BCP sector include: • Terrorism is given greater consideration • Greater concern for the physical safety of employees • May involve the decentralization of business operations • May include the regional impacts of a disaster • Human relationships are accounted for • Businesses striving for zero downtime • Novel approaches are being taken with data • Physical security is now a concern • Increased professionalization of the BCP industry • FEMA Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness Accreditation and Certification Program