Chapter 12 Communicating Effectively • Good communications and their importance • Obstacles to good communication • Listening • Directing people at work • Business • Meetings
Good Communicationsand Their Importance Communications is a term that sums up the the sending and receiving of messages. It may take many forms.
Types of Communications • Interpersonal communication • Organizational communication • Two-way or open communication • Interviewing communication • Small group communication • Mass communication
The Communication Process Sender Expresses meaning in words or symbols Thinks meaning of message Transmits Message Translates words or symbols Receives Message Understands and accepts meaning Receiver
The Importance of Communication • The major function of a manager is to send messages. • Poor communication = problems. • The most neglected communication skill is listening (receiving). • A manager must listen to employees, as well as customers.
Obstacles to Good Communication • How Communicators Affect the Message • How Symbols Can Obscure the Meaning • Problems in Sending the Message • Problems in Receiving the Message • Removing Obstacles to Communication
Ways Communicators Affect the Message • Differences in background, education, past experiences, and intelligence. • Differences in attitude, opinions, and values. • Prejudices. • Differences in perception. • Assumptions and expectations. • Emotions. • Trust/Distrust. • Verbal,listening, and reading skills. • Hearing ability.
How Symbols Can Obscurethe Meaning I want to go HOME!! • Symbols can be words, pictures, or body language. • Words are often misinterpreted due to vagueness and language barriers. • Body language or facial expressions may not match the speakers words. Sure I’ll work overtime!
Problems in Sending the Message • Bad timing • Not having receivers attention • Message is sent to the wrong person • Message sent with wrong means • Forgot to send message
Problems in ReceivingMessages • Assumptions, attitudes, phrasing, etc. may obscure the meaning. • Receiver is preoccupied or not interested. • Message or delivery triggers a negative reaction.
10 Ways to Remove CommunicationObstacles 1.Build a climate of trust. 2. Send your message clearly and explicitly, take into account receivers abilities. 3. Send your message at the best time and have the receivers attention. 4. Send your message to the right person(s). 5. Choose the best means to send your message. 6. Make sure the message is understood, accepted, and acted upon. 7. LISTEN. 8. Be objective. 9. Avoid slang. 10. Never communicate angry.
Listening: Paying complete attention to what people have to say and hearing them out. Benefits of good listening: • Solving problems, relieving tension • Getting the workers point of view • Building a positive work climate • Establishing good relationships How? • Active Listening • Undivided attention • Hear the person out • Look for the real message • Keep emotion out of it • Maintain your role
Bad Listening Practices • Going off on tangents • Reacting emotionally • Cutting the speaker off • Distractions
Directing People at Work: assigning tasks, giving instructions, telling people how to do things, guiding and controlling performance. • Send a clear message: explicit, specific, and complete. • Get your message accepted: build trust, get the interest of the receiver, make sure the message is reasonable. • Make a positive impact. Put yourself on the employees level, talk to them person to person. • Follow the steps for giving instructions.
Steps for Giving Instructions Step 1: Plan what your going to say, to whom, when, and where. Step 2: Establish a climate of acceptance. Step 3:Delivery instructions calmly and confidently. Step 4: Verify understanding. Step 5: Follow up: observe, check, assist, and evaluate your instructions.
Communication Zones: zones of comfortable communication • Personal space: 2-3 ft. • Social distance: 4-7 ft. • Public distance:7-25 ft.
Business Writing: Common Pitfalls • Too long, too wordy • Too vague • Too much jargon • Poorly organized • Purpose not clear • Sloppy: misspelling, incorrect grammar • Too negative • Indirect
Tips for Better Business Writing • Pay attention to who the reader will be, write from their perspective. • Organize your thoughts. • Use simple words. • Get to the point quickly. • Be positive. • Be natural, write as if you were talking. • Write clearly. • Show benefits. • Keep it short. • Always check your document for mistakes.
Meetings: Make them effective. • Be prepared: use an agenda. • Start on time: review agenda. • Summarize and move on. • Keep discussion focused. • Keep meeting minutes. • Have some rules of order. • Handle differences of opinion with respect.