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us foreign policy since 1945 transatlantic relations and the cold war april 16 2007 n.
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US foreign policy since 1945: TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WAR April 16, 2007 PowerPoint Presentation
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US foreign policy since 1945: TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WAR April 16, 2007

US foreign policy since 1945: TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WAR April 16, 2007

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US foreign policy since 1945: TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WAR April 16, 2007

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  1. US foreign policy since 1945: TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WARApril 16, 2007

  2. LAST: BERLIN…

  3. CUBA, 1959-1962 • Fidelistas vs. Batista • Castro’s Cuba 1959 • US Missiles to Turkey, 1959 (Jupiter) • May 1960: US ends aid program to Cuba, Soviets begin theirs • Bay of Pigs, April 1961 • Operation Mongoose, January 1962 • June-July 1962, Preparations for missiles begin in Cuba • Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962

  4. WHY THE MISSILE CRISIS? • Correct the Nuclear Imbalance? • Save the Revolution? “On our part, we will do everything possible to stabilize the situation in Cuba defend Cuba against invasion and assure you the possibilities for peacefully building a socialist society.” Khrushchev to Castro October 28, 1962

  5. OUTCOMES • Germany: 1962-1989: 5,000 leave East Germany (1949-61: 2.6 million) • Cuba: Missiles out but Revolution survives • Stability in Europe, Instability in the Third World • Nuclear Stalemate confirmed, the World of MAD • Monolith is no more… • Free world divisions…

  6. TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WAR • “How much unity should we want? How much diversity can we stand?” • Kissinger, 1969

  7. GLOBAL CONTEXT • Cold War Alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact..) • Regional Conflicts (Korea, Middle East, Vietnam) • International Economy (Marshall Plan, EEC, GATT)

  8. TRANSATLANTIC TRADE, 1960-1980

  9. US-EC Foreign Direct Investment, 1960-1980

  10. JOHNSON vs. DE GAULLE • “we’ve really got no control over their (France’s) foreign policy.”

  11. JOHNSON’S DETENTE • “Each time I mentioned missiles, Kosygin talked about Arabs and Israelis.” • “The Cold War is not over.”

  12. NIXON & OSTPOLITIK • “[there is] a danger that as Brandt pursues the quest for normalization, his advisers and supporters will eventually succeed in leading him to jeopardize Germany’s entire international position… assuming Brandt achieves a degree of normalization, he or his successor may discover before long that the hoped-for benefits fail to develop. Instead of ameliorating the division of Germany, recognition of the G[erman] D[emocratic] R[epublic] may boost its status and strengthen the Communist regime…. More fundamentally, the Soviets having achieved their first set of objectives may then confront the FRG with the proposition that a real and lasting improvement in the FRG’s relations with the GDR and other Eastern countries can only be achieved if Bonn loosens its Western ties.” -- Kissinger to Nixon, February 1970 • “This meant that Washington wanted to have the last word.” -- Brandt

  13. YEAR OF EUROPE • "The United States has global interests and responsibilities. Our European allies have regional interests." • “For Kissinger to announce a Year of Europe was like for me to stand on Trafalgar Square and announce that we were embarking on a year to save America!” -- Edward Heath

  14. A BALANCE SHEET • «In any case, what Europe thinks is basically irrelevant.» Kissinger