Bacterial Virulence Factors • Some bacteria have certain cell parts that help them to invade other organisms better. These are called virulence factors. • Some of these features are common to protists and fungi also. • Can you recognise the ones shown on the next slide?
A Cell Wall – protection, invasion, evasion Flagellum - motion Cell Parts D B Ribosome – production of toxins/attachment proteins on cell wall Cilia - motion
Toxins • Some bacteria produce toxins which can cause further damage to cells or disruption to cellular activities: • Eg. tetanus disease caused by infection with Clostridium tetani which produces the tetanus toxin, causing all muscles to remain flexed by binding and blocking neurotransmitter receptors • Eg. Botulism disease caused by food-borne infection with Clostridium botulinum which produces the botulinum toxin (botox) that relaxes nerves and prevents them from firing
Gram + bacillus Giardia Gram - coccus
Growth Requirements • Oxygen: • Aerobic • Anaerobic • Nutrients • Sugar • Carbon • Minerals • Sulphur • Vitamins • Moisture • Temperature
Reproduction Spores Binary Fission