2500 – 250 BC Hinduism • The religion of Hinduism developed and evolved over a long time in India, giving rise to a variety of beliefs and practices and to other religions, including Buddhism. • One of the oldest religions of humanity, founded in 1500 BCE or earlier. • It is the 3rd largest religion in the world. • No particular founder Brahman
2500 – 250 BC What do Hindus believe? • 1. Brahman -the eternal being - created and preserves the world. Everything in the world is an aspect of Brahman. • 2. Atman - the soul – each person has one that is an aspect of Brahman. Can’t ever be destroyed. • 3. Devas – manifestations of Brahman that are active in the world and who help to maintain order. • 3 of the most common—Brahma, Vishnu, & Siva • 4. Reincarnation – being reborn into this world lifetime after lifetime (Samsara) • 5. Karma – the sum effect of a person’s actions, good and bad, which helps shape future experiences • 6. Moksha - goal of human existence, escape from the cycle of reincarnation to join with the Brahman. • 7. Dharma – set of spiritual duties and obligations that must be fulfilled to achieve moksha.
2500 – 250 BC What are the Sacred Texts? • Oldest, most authoritative: • 1. Four Vedas (“truth”) – sacred hymns of praise • Contain knowledge revealed by Brahman • 2. Upanishads – philosophical reflections on the Vedas • Also revealed to, not written by, people • the Great Indian Epics (composed by sages) • Ramayana • Mahabharata (includes Bhagavad-Gita) • Both tell stories that reflect on what it means to live according to Vedic teachings
2500 – 250 BC What are the religious practices of Hinduism? • Vary greatly because worship can take place anywhere—usually a temple or in the home. • Spiritual leaders are called gurus or sages. • Yoga-integrated physical and mental exercises. They teach people to focus their minds and bodies which will aid their meditation in order to attain moksha • Pilgrimage to Ganges (thought it flows through 2 devas so its water is holy. Bathing in it will purify them and remove bad karma. • Ultimate goal of life – to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman (Moksha)
2500 – 250 BC Who do Hindus worship? – 3 Most Important Devas Brahma, the creator Vishnu, the Preserver Siva, the Destroyer
All these deities are but Aspects of the impersonal Brahman
Hinduism – Map! AUM! AUM! AUM! Hinduism in 1500 C.E. Hinduism Today Hinduism located in India and SE Asia Then and Now
2500 – 250 BC Buddhism • Buddhism, which teaches people that they can escape the suffering of the world through the Buddhist teachings, developed in Northeast India in 520 BCE and spread to other parts of Asia • 4th largest religion in the world
2500 – 250 BC Siddhartha Gautama(563-483 BCE) • Unlike Hinduism, Buddhism can be traced to one single founder, Siddhartha Gautama • Prince of a small kingdom; he lived a sheltered life and sought the answer to ending suffering • After years of meditation and searching, he sat under a Bodhi tree where he became Enlightened • He transformed into the Buddha-the Enlightened One.
2500 – 250 BC The Teachings of Buddhism What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire! • Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself. Give up all materials and possessions of the world.
2500 – 250 BC Four Noble Truths • There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. • The cause of suffering is people’s desires for pleasure and material goods. • The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = “extinction”) • To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path 2500 – 250 BC Right Understanding Right Speech Right Intention Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Concentration Right Mindfulness
2500 – 250 BC Eightfold Path Nirvana • Nirvana is a state of perfect peace in which the soul would be free from suffering forever. It would escape from the cycle of rebirth. • If nirvana is not achieved, then the soul would be reborn to live through the cycle of suffering again. • Spiritual leaders are called monks or lamas. • Worship takes place in a temple or meditation hall.
Sacred Texts • Pali Canon • Dhammapada • Both record the words of the Buddha
The Spread of Buddhism Interactive Map http://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/books/applications/imaps/maps/g6_u7/
2500 – 250 BC Types of Buddhism • Therevada Buddhism • Mahayana Buddhism • Tibetan Buddhism
2500 – 250 BC Theravada Buddhism • The oldest school of Buddhism. • Found in southern Asia. • The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana. • Focus on wisdom and meditation. • Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.” • Over 100,000,000 followers today.
2500 – 250 BC Mahayana Buddhism • Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan). • Buddhism “for the masses.” • One doesn’t need to be a monk or nun to reach nirvana; anyone can do it with some help. • Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings, people who have found enlightenment but have stayed on earth to help others find their way. • Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those who are already enlightened.d few.
2500 – 250 BC Tibetan Buddhism • Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE. • A mix of Theravada and Mahayana. • Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama.
Buddhism – Map! Buddhism in 1500 C.E. Buddhism Today Buddhism located in Southeast and East Asia (China) Then and Now
Brief History • Judaism- The Hebrew leader Abraham founded Judaism in Mesopotamia around 1300 B.C. Judaism is the oldest of the monotheistic faiths (religions with one God). • Christianity - Founded by Jesus Christ, who was crucified around A.D. 33 in Palestine in the city of Jerusalem. It was after his death when his followers came to believe in him as the Christ, the Messiah. • Islam - Founded in Arabia by Muhammad in A.D. 622.
4000–550 BC Abraham’s Genealogy All 3 Religions are linked by Abraham—He is the patriarch of all 3 • Islam-Quran • Judaism-Torah HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob/Israel Esau Mecca (Muslims) • Muhammad (the last prophet) • Quran and the Five Pillars of Islam 12 Tribes of Israel • Other 10 tribes-(Israelites) (Hebrews) • 2 Tribes - (Jews) of Judah • Jesus Christ (son of God) • The Hebrew Bible - Old Testament in the Christian Bible
Judaism Briefly • Judaism is over 3000 years old and is the oldest of the world's monotheistic religions (religions with only one God). It's also the smallest, with only about 14 million(7th) followers around the world. • Its holy city is Jerusalem.
Judaism Beliefs • Jews believe that there is a single God(Yahweh) who not only created the universe, but with whom every Jew can have an individual and personal relationship. • They await the Messiah, who will be an earthly king. They believe in heaven, but that God determines where they go after life on earth. • Ten Commandments is the basic code of law.
Judaism Holy Book • The most holy Jewish book is the Torah(the first five books of the Christian Bible). Others include Judaism's oral tradition, the written form of which is known as the Talmud. • The Torah (scroll of teachings) contains the five books revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. • Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy
Judaism Place of Worship • Jews worship in Synagogues or temples. Men and women usually sit separately. • Worship is led by a Rabbi. • Saturday (begins at sundown on Friday) is time for worship. Stamford Hill, London
The Temple • According to the Bible, the First Temple for Jewish worship was built around 900-1000 BCE and destroyed by Babylonians in 586 BCE. • The Jews were then sent out of Canaan, but returned after 50 years in exile. • A Diaspora occurs when a group of people leave their homeland and move to many different locations separately. • All of the world’s Jewish communities today that do not live in present-day Israel are part of the Jewish Diaspora.
The Temple • A new temple was finished 70 years later on the site of the First Temple, but was badly plundered by invading Romans about 54 BCE. • King Herod, a Jew, ruled Judea for the Romans. Under him the second temple was rebuilt in 20 BCE. • When the Romans attacked Jerusalem again in 70 CE(AD), they destroyed Herod’s temple. • Today, the single remaining temple wall, the Western Wall, is a place of prayer for Jewish pilgrims. • Jews moved away from the land again, until the modern state of Israel was formed in the late 1940s.
Judaism – Map! Judaism in 1500 C.E. Judaism Today Today, located in Israel and U.S. In 1500, located in Europe and Middle East
Christianity briefly • Christianity is the world's largest religion, with about 2.2 billion followers worldwide. It is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who lived in the Holy Land 2,000 years ago.
Christianity Beliefs • Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Son of God • God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from the consequences of its sins • Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his Crucifixion (the Resurrection) • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah promised in the Old Testament • Christians believe that there is only one God, but that this one God consists of 3 "persons“-God the Father, God the Son, God the Holy Ghost--Trinity • Christians believe that God made the world.
Christianity Beliefs • Christians believe that they can have a personal relationship with God, and that they are saved by faith, and good works. • They believe in heaven and hell. • They believe that the Bible is the inspired word of God.
Christians Holy Book • The Bible is the Christian holy book. It is divided into the Old and New Testaments. Parts of the writing contained in the Old Testament are also sacred to Jewish and Muslim people.
Christian Place of Worship • The Christian place of worship is called a Church, which are built in the shape of a cross with the altar facing east towards the rising sun. Services are led by a priest, pastor or reverend. • Day of worship is normally Sunday. Westminster Abbey London
Christian Sects • Roman Catholicism vs. Eastern Orthodox-ChristianChurch divided when the Roman Empire was divided and then fell. Orthodox Christians do not recognize the authority of the Pope. • Catholicism vs. Protestantism-asa result of the Reformation, Protestant sects broke with the Catholic Church and established their own separate churches.
Christianity – Map! Christianity 1500 C.E. Christianity Today In 1500, located in Europe and Middle East Today, located in Americas and Europe
Islam Briefly • Islam is the second most popular religion in the world with 1.3 billion followers. Islam began in Arabia and was revealed to humanity by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Those who follow Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that there is only one God, called Allah, who speaks Arabic.
Islam Holy Book • The Muslim scripture is the Holy Qur'an. It is 'the word of God'. Muslim beliefs and practices are rooted in the Qur'an. • Muslims treat the Qur'an with great respect because they believe that the Qur'an is from Allah, and every word and every letter is sacred. • Muslims regard the Qur'an as the unaltered word of God.
Islam Place of Worship • The Muslim building for communal worship is called a Mosque. The word comes from the Arabic for "place of prostration". • Worshippers are called to prayer 5 times a day from minarets – towers on the mosque corners. • They contain only designs, no people or animals or furniture. • Normal day of worship is Friday. • Religious leaders are called imams. Grand mosque in Mecca
Five Pillars Belief system/law code • Shahadah: declaration of faith"I bear witness that there is no god, but God; I bear witness that Muhammad is the prophet of God." By reciting this, one enters Islamic faith. • Salah: Pray 5 times a day facing MeccaMuslims are required to pray five times a day, washing themselves before prayer and facing in the direction of Mecca while praying. • Zakat: Give a fixed proportion to charityMuslims are required to give away a percentage of their earnings to those less fortunate, regardless of their religion. • Saum: Fast during the month of RamadanMuslims fast for one lunar month each year, a period called Ramadan. During this time, Muslims reflect on their behavior and strive to purify their thoughts. • Hajj: Make a pilgrimage to MeccaIf it is financially possible, Muslims are required to travel to Mecca once in their lifetime.
The Hajj • Hijja:The month of pilgrimage during which all Muslims, at least once in their life, should try to make the pilgrimage to Mecca and worship at the Kaaba
Muslim Sects • Sunni-the majority • Shia-the minority • The split rose from an early dispute over who should be the leader of Islam after the death of Muhammad. The Sunnis argued that the successor should be appointed by election and consensus, as tradition dictated. (Sunni comes from the Arabic word Sunna , meaning “tradition.”) The Shia believed that Muhammad's successors should come from his family, starting with Ali, his son-in-law. These, the partisans of Ali, were named from the word Shia , meaning “partisan” in Arabic.
Islam – Map! Islam in 1500 C.E. Islam Today In 1500, located in Middle East, Africa, and Southern Europe Today, located in Middle East, Africa, and Asia
View of Fellow Abrahamic Religions • Judaism – “Islam and Christianity are false interpretations and extensions of Judaism.” • Christianity – “Judaism is a true religion, but with incomplete revelation. Islam is a false religion.” • Islam – “Jews and Christians are respected as fellow believers, but with wrong beliefs and only partial revelation.”