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Nouns

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Nouns

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  1. Nouns A general guide

  2. Los sustantivos • The Spanish noun has a gender. Each noun is either masculine or feminine. • Nouns that refer to a man, such as father, brother etcare masculine. • Nouns that refer to a woman, such as mother, sister etc are feminine. • For all other nouns it is necessary to learn the proper gender.

  3. Definite articles • There are some general rules about the gender of nouns. In the examples that follow, the masculine article el and the feminine article la are placed before the nouns to indicate gender. • El and la are equivalent to the English definite article the.

  4. Masculine nouns Nouns that designate male beings generally(but not always) end in –o el cartero-mail carrier el padre- father El hombre-man el hermano-brother El profesor-teacher

  5. Most nouns ending in –o are masculine • El año-year el queso-cheese • El caballo- horse el zapato-shoe

  6. Some nouns ending in –a are masculine • Nouns that end in –ía, -ma, -ama, -ema, and –oma are masculine. • El aroma- aroma el diploma-diploma • El clima-climate el idioma-language • El día-day

  7. More masculine nouns • Nouns the end in –ambre and –ajeare masculine. • El equipaje-luggage • El enjambre-a swarm of bees • El paisaje- landscape • El alambre-wire

  8. One more set of masculine nouns • Nouns that end in –or/and án are masculine. • El amor- love el azafrán-saffron • El calor-heat el valor-courage

  9. Feminine Nouns • Nouns that identify female beings generally (but not always) end in –a. • La enfermera-nurse la profesora-teacher • La hija-daughter la madre-mother

  10. More feminine nouns • Nearly all other nouns ending in –a are also feminine (see previous section on masculine nouns ending in –a) • La cocina-kitchen la pelota- ball • La guitarra-guitar la maleta-suitcase

  11. A few feminine nouns ending in -o • With the exception of la mano, the other examples are abbreviations of compound feminine nouns. • La foto (fotografía)-photo(graph) • La mano-hand • La moto(motocicleta)-motorcycle

  12. Feminine nouns • Nouns ending in –ciónand –sión are feminine. • La canción-song la inyección-injection • La dirección-address • la estación-station/season

  13. More feminine nouns • Nouns ending in –dad and –tad are usually feminine. Many English equivalents end in –ty. • La amistad-friendship La dignindad-dignity • La ciudad-city la dificultad-difficulty

  14. more • Nouns the end in –ie, -eza, -isis, and –itis, are usually feminine. • La crisis-crisis la tristeza-sadness • La especie-species la serie-series

  15. One more set of feminine nouns • Nouns that end in –tud and –umbre are feminine. • La costumbre-custom, tradition • La esclavitud-slavery • La virtud-virtue • La certidumbre-certainty

  16. Professions • Nouns designating professions and individuals may end in –a, -ante, -e, or –istaand in general the may designate either a male or female person. The article is used to determine gender. • El/la atleta-athleteel/la pediatra-pediatrician • El/la cantante-singer • el/la periodista-journalist