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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

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  1. Chapter 4 The Motherboard

  2. You Will Learn… • About the types of motherboards • About components on the motherboard • A basic procedure for building a computer • How to install a motherboard • How to troubleshoot a motherboard

  3. Purpose of Motherboard • Houses the CPU • Allows all devices to communicate with the CPU and with each other

  4. Types of Motherboards

  5. ATX and AT Motherboards

  6. CPU and chip set System clock ROM BIOS CMOS configuration chip and its battery RAM RAM cache (optional) System bus with expansion slots Jumpers and DIP switches Ports that are directly on the board Power supply connections Main Components on a Motherboard

  7. Field Replaceable Units (FRUs) • CPU • ROM BIOS chip • CMOS battery • RAM • RAM cache

  8. An AT Motherboard

  9. An ATX Motherboard

  10. Components Determined by Motherboard Selection • Types and speeds of CPU • Chip set on the board (already installed) • Memory cache and size • Types/number of expansion slots: ISA, PCI, AGP • Type of memory, including what kind and how much SRAM and DRAM (SIMMs, DIMMs, or RIMMs) • Maximum amount of memory you can install; incremental amounts by which you can upgrade continued…

  11. Components Determined by Motherboard Selection • Type of case you can use • ROM BIOS (already installed) • Type of keyboard connector • Presence/absence of proprietary video and/or proprietary local bus slots • Presence/absence of IDE adapters and SCSI controller • Presence/absence of COM ports, LPT ports, and mouse port

  12. Approaches to Selecting a Motherboard • Provides most room for expansion • Suits needs of current configuration • Meets present needs with moderate room for expansion

  13. When Selecting a Motherboard • Designed so long expansion cards don’t get in the way of CPU or other devices? • Support CPU you plan to use? • What type of BIOS does it use? • What bus speeds and type memory does it support; how much memory can it hold? • Does it use many embedded devices? continued…

  14. When Selecting a Motherboard • Does it fit the case? • Does it support your legacy cards? • What is the warranty? • Extensive user-friendly documentation? • How much support does manufacturer supply?

  15. Motherboard Manufacturers

  16. The System Clock • Keeps beat for motherboard activities • Frequency measured in megahertz (MHz) • Wait state • Occurs when CPU must wait for another component

  17. CPU and Chip Set • IBM and IBM-compatible computers use a microprocessor chip made by Intel or AMD, and to a lesser degree by Cyrix

  18. Speed (in gigahertz) Efficiency of programming code Number of transistors Number of registers Word size Data path Maximum number of memory addresses Amount of memory included Multiprocessing abilities Special functionality Attributes Used to Rate CPUs

  19. The Pentium and Its Competitors • Pentium processor • A true multiprocessor (has two ALUs) • 64-bit external path size and two 32-bit internal paths (one for each ALU)

  20. CPU Terminology • Bus speed • Frequency/speed at which data moves on a bus • Only the fastest bus connects directly to CPU • Processor speed • Speed at which CPU operates internally • The multiplier • System bus speed x multiplier = processor speed • Memory cache • Small amount of RAM that is fast and does not need refreshing • Can hold data as long as power is available

  21. Memory Cache on the CPU • Internal cache, primary cache, or Level 1 cache • Included on the CPU die • External cache, secondary cache, or Level 2 cache • Outside CPU microchip

  22. Memory Cache on the CPU

  23. The Pentium III

  24. The Pentium 4

  25. Advanced Pentium Competitors

  26. The Cyrix III

  27. The AMD Athlon

  28. Intel Itanium:The Next-Generation Processor • Intel’s first 64-bit processor for microcomputers • Designed for high-end enterprise servers • Uses a new instruction set called the EPIC (explicitly parallel instruction computing) architecture

  29. Intel Itanium Processors

  30. CPU Heat Sinks & Cooling Fans • Heat sinks • Used by older CPUs to pull heat away from the CPU • Clip-on device that mounts on top of the CPU • Cooling fans • Keep temperatures below the Intel maximum limit of 185 degrees F/85 degrees C • Exotic options: refrigeration, peltiers, water coolers

  31. Heat Sinks and Cooling Fans

  32. CPU Cooling Fan

  33. SECC (Single Edge Contact Cartridge) SECC2 (Single Edge Contact Cartridge, version 2) SEP (Single Edge Processor) PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array) PGA (Pin Grid Array) OOI/OLGA (Organic Land Grid Array) FC-PGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array) FC-PGA2 (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array 2) PAC (Pin Array Cartridge) CPU Package Types

  34. Plastic Pin Grid Array

  35. CPU Slots and Sockets • Physical connections used to connect CPU to motherboard • Motherboard and processor must match • Slots 1 and 2 are proprietary Intel slots • Slot A and Socket A are proprietary AMD connectors

  36. Sockets and Slots Used by CPUs continued…

  37. Sockets and Slots Used by CPUs

  38. CPU Slots and Sockets • Earlier CPU sockets • Pin grid array (PGA) sockets • Staggered pin grid array (SPGA) • Low insertion force (LIF) sockets • Current CPU sockets • Zero insertion force (ZIF) sockets; small lever on side of socket lifts CPU up and out of socket

  39. CPU Slots and Sockets

  40. Controls the amount of voltage to the CPU Dual-voltage CPUs and single-voltage CPUs CPU Voltage Regulator

  41. The Chip Set • Set of chips on system board that collectively controls memory cache, external buses, and some peripherals • Intel dominates the market • Most compatible with Pentium family of CPUs • Investment in R&D has led to other developments (eg, PCI bus, universal serial bus, AGP, and Accelerated Hub Architecture)

  42. “E” chipset family Intel i800 Series Orion Natoma Triton III Triton II Triton I Intel Chip Sets

  43. Accelerated Hub Architecture

  44. Chip Set Manufacturers

  45. ROM BIOS • One ROM chip on motherboard contains BIOS • BIOS manages startup process (startup BIOS) and basic I/O functions (system BIOS) • Most devices are not supported by system BIOS, but by device drivers • Flash ROM (erasable programmable read-only memory or EEPROM) allows ROM BIOS to be upgraded without changing ROM chip

  46. BIOS Manufacturers

  47. Sample Web Site for Flash ROM BIOS Upgrades

  48. Buses and Expansion Slots • PCs have four or five buses, each with different speeds, access methods, and protocols • Buses evolved around data path and speed • So many buses because single speed is not practical • Buses carry electrical power, control signals, memory addresses, and data • On-board ports (eg, keyboard port and mouse port) • Expansion slots can be located on motherboard; sometimes stacked vertically on a second board