Technology and Academic Integrity A Guide for Teachers By J. Speed Farris
“Originality is the art of concealing your sources.” Benjamin Franklin
A Perspective on Cheating To some students, cheating is not about values at all; it's about power. Some people, they argue, have the advantage of well-connected families; some are naturally bright; others get ahead through cheating. In these students' minds, all means are morally equivalent, according to Gary Pavela, author of Code of Academic Honesty, which has been adopted by several universities. For these young people, Pavela observes, "Concepts like 'morality,' 'virtue,' and 'truth' have no meaning except to disguise and facilitate the use of power by those who have it, or seek it."
What is Cheating? 1. Cheating “intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, or study aids in any academic exercise. The term academic exercise includes all forms of work submitted for credit or hours.” Pavela (1978) Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
What is Cheating? 2. Fabrication “intentional and unauthorized falsification or invention of any information or citation in an academic exercise.” 3. Plagiarism “deliberate adoption or reproduction of ideas or words or statements of another person as one’s own without acknowledgement.” Pavela (1978) Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
What is Cheating? 4. Facilitating academic dishonesty “intentionally or knowingly helping or attempting to help another” (to cheat). Pavela (1978) Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
What is Cheating? In their book, Academic Dishonesty—An Educator’s Guide, Whitley and Keith-Spiegel add three more categories: 5. Misrepresentation “Consists of providing false information to an instructor concerning an academic exercise.” 6. Failure to contribute to a collaborative project “Involves not doing one’s fair share.” 7. Sabotage ”Consists of actions that prevent others from completing their work.” Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
How big of a problem is it? • The research indicates that almost everyone has cheated at one time or another, and some surveys reveal more than 90% of students polled admitted to cheating. • Cheating seems to peak in high school, and slowly declines in post-secondary education. However, it is ubiquitous at all levels. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Needs Assessment and Initial Assumptions • A certain number of students, in almost any learning environment, are going to cheat. • Recent technology provides easier and more effective methods of cheating. • Teachers generally do not have the time or inclination to research dishonest applications of technology. As a result, they often are unprepared to detect or prevent it in their classrooms.
Academic Dishonesty • Types of Cheating • “Old Fashioned” methods • Cheat Sheets, etc. • Using Technology • Cell Phones, Internet, etc. • Detection and Prevention • Student Education
Academic Dishonesty • Old-Fashioned Methods: • Copying from other students, using cheat sheets, paraphrasing / plagiarizing from books, looking in the garbage for carbon copies of tests…
Cheat Sheets • Hand Written Cheat Sheets: • Relatively small amount of available information • Often Illegible • Difficult to conceal
Hiding Cheat Sheets A student’s clothing can provide numerous hiding places.
Some Indications of Cheating: Books / notes on floor, electronics, covered eyes, roving eyes, eye contact, postures of concealment.
Basic Remediation Suggestion #1 • Establish your presence during testing periods. • Clearly state your expectations (No talking, no notes, no electronics, etc.) and your consequences (Grade of zero) prior to the test. • Move around the classroom; never stay in the same place for long. • Walk up and down the aisles looking for open notes on the floor. • Stand at the back of the room periodically. • Be alert for students with awkward postures, furtive movements, or repeated eye-contact with the teacher.
Academic Dishonesty • Technology-Based Methods: • High resolution cheat sheets, USB data theft, cell / camera phones, iPods, Internet cheat sites…
Cheat Sheets and Technology High resolution printers can provide a significant increase in available information. Clear water or soda bottles offer magnification, while opaque sodas hide evidence (cheater takes a slow sip in order to catch a glimpse of the answers).
Cheat Sheets and Technology The packaging of ordinary products like gum or breath mints can be modified to serve as a cheat sheet. Templates (at left) can be made with the help of a scanner, photo-editing software, and a high resolution color printer.
Basic Remediation Suggestion #2 • Don’t allow anything other than paper and pencil on student desks during a test. • Create different versions of each test. Do Not use the same exam every year.
Cellular/Camera Phones Risks: Photography of class materials, silent text messaging during exams, and even web access in some models.
Cellular/Camera Phones Source: http://www.textually.org/textually/archives/2006/03/011883.htm
Cellular/Camera Phones High School Kids tell how they cheat on exams with their cell phones The New York Post April 23, 2005 High-schoolers openly admitted to The NY Post that they cheated on exams using their cell phones, and that the practice had even reached "epidemic" proportions, with "some phone frauds even selling answers and exam photos, they said. "People take photos of the test, and they e-mail it to other people who have the test later that day," said Ewa Maciukiewicz, 18, a Bronx HS of Science senior.
Cellular/Camera Phones An article on student cheating, published in a school paper by the students of Montgomery Blair High in Silver Spring, Maryland: The article gives first hand stories of students who have cheated during exams, unbeknownst to their “clueless” teachers. February 24, 2005 – "Teachers' ignorance of text-message cheating makes it even more tempting for students: In an informal Silver Chips poll of 19 teachers from different departments on Jan. 3 and Jan. 4, only two were aware that students use text-messaging to cheat. None have caught any students in the act. Rachel, a student, feels that teachers are too inexperienced with technology to realize students would use it to their advantage. "They're not expecting [cheating] to be that high-tech. When they were in school, they didn't have cell phones. That's never going to cross their mind," she says. Steven, a junior, says that teachers won't catch text-message cheaters since cell phones are so small. "The teachers can't pay attention to it. It looks like a PDA so when it beeps, I just say my PDA went off." Steven says the only way teachers will catch on is if they learn the technology. "They need to get into technology so they can text-message each other," he says. That way, he says, teachers will understand the technology and be better able to detect text-message cheating." Source: http://www.textually.org/textually/archives/2005/02/007284.htm
High-Frequency Ring Tones High-frequency ring tones can be used by students to send and receive telephone calls during class. It works on the principle that most adults over the age of thirty lose their ability to hear high frequency sounds. Currently, the ring tone accomplishes nothing more than the vibrate function on a typical cellular phone can already do.
Cellular/Camera Phones Some students have even resorted to calling 911 with false emergencies (fire, bomb, etc.), in order to temporarily avoid an exam or due date.
Basic Remediation Suggestion #3 • Option #1: Prohibit personal electronic devices in the classroom. • Option #2: Establish a policy of “Off and Away” in the classroom. (Electronic devices may be brought to class, but must be turned off and stored where they cannot be seen) • Option #3: Monitor the use of personal electronic devices in the classroom.
Alternatives? • Signal Jammers / Blockers • The operation of transmitters designed to jam or block wireless communications is a violation of the Communications Act of 1934.Parties in violation of these provisions may be subject to the penalties set out in 47 U.S.C. Sections 501-510. Fines for a first offense can range as high as $11,000 for each violation or imprisonment for up to one year.
Alternatives? Startup Markets Wireless-Security Paint Tiny Force Field Wireless is selling paint laced with aluminum and copper that it claims will keep wireless-network traffic within company walls. A small startup in Silicon Valley has an anti-intrusion tool that sells for $69 a gallon--you supply the brush. Force Field Wireless makes three products that it says can dramatically reduce the leakage of wireless signals from a room or building. The company's sales manager, Harold Wray, co-developed DefendAir Radio Shield latex paint, which contains copper filings and an aluminum compound. When spread evenly on a wall, the paint reflects signals in frequencies from 100 MHz to 5 GHz. Paint four walls, a floor, and a ceiling, and you effectively have a Faraday cage, which is a specially constructed metal room that blocks all radio signals in or out, suitable for a CIA director or a determined shut-in. InformationWeek (Dec. 28, 2004) – Jim Nash
Media Storage Devices Small, handheld devices such as flash drives, iPods, cellular phones, programmable calculators, and PDAs offer a wide range of possibilities for academic dishonesty. USB capable devices, such as flash drives (left) and iPods (bottom left), can be plugged into teachers’ computers in order to copy and store up to 40GB of data. Others can be used to access previously loaded data or even the Internet directly from class.
Media Storage Devices • Infrared calculators, such as the HP480S, can send and receive files from the classroom. • Other infrared devices with data transmission capabilities:
Media Storage Devices • In addition to stealing data from an unsupervised computer, USB devices such as the flash drive can be loaded with viruses or other malicious software. • Such software, once installed onto a computer, can do anything from logging a user’s passwords, to creating a “backdoor” access point to the user’s hard drive. • Antivirus programs such as Norton Antivirus and McAfee Internet Security offer virus scan options for USB devices.
Media Storage Devices Classroom Ethics – Rise of the Cybercheat By Patrick Metzger, CBC News December 7, 2006 “Even the ubiquitous iPod music player can be used as a digital cheat sheet — a company called iPREPpress sells research notes specifically designed for use on an iPod, for example. Essentially the same as the Coles or Cliff notes that students have used for generations, entire books can be downloaded and read on any iPod with a display screen.”
Basic Remediation Suggestion #3 • Prohibit or closely monitor media storage devices in the classroom. • Never leave students alone with a teacher’s computer. • Lock computer workstation: Press the “windows” and “L” keys simultaneously. • Install antivirus software. • Run virus scans on all student-owned USB devices plugged into teacher’s computer.
Keystroke Logging Even passwords offer little protection against such technology as the keystroke logger. This device can be surreptitiously connected between a keyboard cable and PC to monitor and record all keyed entries. Once analyzed with its proprietary software, a keystroke logger can easily be used to identify passwords and other private data.
Internet Cheat Sites Many websites offer cheating advice to students. The following suggestions were found onwww.blurofinsanity.com: 1.Write on hands, in between fingers. (well known, but it often works)2.Write answers on an index card attached to a rubber band that runs up your sleeve. When the Instructor or Proctor gets suspicious, let go and the crib sheet slides up your sleeve and out of sight. This can be tricky but provides an almost infallible way not to get caught. 3.Come in at Night and write on your desk before the test. Make sure you get this desk! This is effective if the desks in the room are already graffitied (most are).
Internet Cheat Sites Many websites offer cheating advice to students. The following suggestions were found onwww.blurofinsanity.com: 4. Write on those Wooden Octagon Pencils with a nail or something sharp. Write down the side so when you hold the pencil you can actually read it while you write. It makes it hard for teachers to read, because you have to be in the right light. 5. Gum Wrapper (for additional space for the method above, or if you are to lazy to make full wrapper).a. Get a pack of gum, Wrigley's, etc.b. Open up a piece. c. Write cheat notes inside the wrapper.d. Refold the gum.e. During test, eat a piece of gumf. Nonchalantly look at inside of wrapper.
Online Advice to Cheaters A CHEATING TESTIMONIAL by Eric Price Since we are attached to the Internet, we can assume every one of us has access to a computer, a word processor, and a printer. While I recommend a laser or high quality ink jet, even a dot matrix will do in a pinch. Now I know that most of us are too lazy to do this, but to make really killer cheat sheets, just use your word processor to type out your definitions, pictures, whatever. Then, when you are all done, shrink the entire document down to 4 point (about the smallest you can still read without a magnifying glass) set the margins to make a sheet small enough to fit in the palm of your hand. I once put entire 5 page essay on crib sheet for a college History exam. Got a perfect grade. Recommend you experiment ahead of time to find that perfect size. Got too much information for one small page? Fold it OR make separate sheets, separated by subject, and stash them in your pockets, etc. These tiny sheets are great in that they may be eaten (been there done that) if the prof gets too close or becomes suspicious. If you think these don't work then how do you explain my 3.95+ GPA in my junior year of college. (Source: www.blurofinsanity.com)
Internet Cheating A search for “free essays” on Google.com will yield 77,300,000results in 0.07 seconds.
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Pre-Written Essays • Pre-Written essays are available at varying levels of competence. For example, a C student can order a paper with misspellings, poor grammar, and inaccurate interpretations of the literature. • Pre-Written essays can often be detected by entering suspicious phrases into search engines such as Google. If the paper is submitted digitally, check the “document properties” for authorship information.
Plagiarism Detection • http://www.plagiarism.org (Online service) • http://www.plagiarism.com (Software – $250-$300) • http://www.turnitin.com (Online service) • http://www.ithenticate.com (Online service) • http://www.canexus.com (Software – $29.95) • CopyCatch - http://plagiarism.phys.virginia.edu/links.html • EVE 2 (Essay Verification Engine) - http://www.canexus.com/ • Glatt Plagiarism Program - http://plagiarism.com/ • ithenticate - http://www.ithenticate.com/static/products_services/ • JPlag - http://www.jplag.de/ • MatchDetectReveal - http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/projects/MDR/ • MOSS (Measure of Software Similarity) - http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~aiken/moss.html • MyDropBox/SafeAssignment - http://www.mydropbox.com/ • PowerResearcher - http://www.powerresearcher.com/ • SIM - http://www.cs.vu.nl/~dick/sim.html • Urkund - http://www.urkund.com/ • WCopyfind - http://plagiarism.phys.virginia.edu/Wsoftware.html • Integriguard • Word Check
Internet Paper Mills • A paper mill is a service that can provide either a pre-written or custom essay on demand.
Internet Paper Mills • Custom Essays are more difficult to track. • Most custom essay sites will write original essays on demand, making it impossible to detect on web searches. • The best defenses include: • Keep writing samples for each student • Require draft submissions • Ask students to explain their thought processes • In-Class Essays!
Plagiarism Detection • http://www.plagiarism.org (Online service) • http://www.plagiarism.com (Software – $250-$300) • http://www.turnitin.com (Online service) • http://www.ithenticate.com (Online service) • http://www.canexus.com (Software – $29.95)
Plagiarism Detection • Google (http://www.google.com) can also be used as a detection tool to track down Internet plagiarism. • Its advanced search engine capabilities are conducive to locating key phrases that may appear in students' papers. • Perform an exact phrase search on a phrase from a suspect part of the paper using the Advanced Search.
Step 1: On Google's main page, choose Advanced Search Step 2: Select a distinctive phrase from a suspect paper and type in the "with the exact phrase" search box. Click on "Google Search."