Background • Humans have recognized the impact of atmospheric parameters on crops, fisheries, even their health
SOI • Southern Oscillation Index • Indicator of the strength of the Southern Oscillation • Calculated from the monthly or seasonal fluctuations in the air pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin.
Discrete versus continuous data • http://www.coolclassroom.org/cool_projects/lessons/miniunits/lesson1.html
Data and metadata • Sampling interval
Asking the question(s) • Why research the topic? • What would be presumed data sources? • Data transformation? • Alternate questions?
Fisheries issues • Changes in catch volume • Species shifts • Value of catch
Anchovies/sardines – Chile • Sardines – California
Peruvian landings of anchovies and sardines, by years Years Sardines Anchovies
You did read, right?! • Chavez, FP, et al., From anchovies to sardines and back: Multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean, Science, 299, 217-221 (03)
Is wind a parameter that has significant effect on upwelling at Monterey Bay?
Buoy positions • Positions, relative to land, of M1 & M2? • Water depth expectation? • Wind/wave height expectation?
Obvious questions • Prevalent winds? • Annual • Seasonal • Winter scatter? • Seasonal wind speeds?
M1 (Inshore) M2 (Offshore) N Julian Day – 2006 Wind vector and bathymetric isotherm data from Buoys M1 & M2 For metadata consult http://www.mbari.org/moos/
Compare M1 & M2 isotherms • Do they correlate with wind vectors?
Other areas to explore • Plankton cycles – chlorophyll/temperature • Wind/wave height • Temperature/salinity • Upwelling/toxic blooms
Background – M1 data Collects: • Wind vector • Bathymetric temperature
Daily wind vector plots Days 156 – 188 S Julian day 156 188
The top panel shows wind speed and direction measured at the buoy. When the sticks point down then the wind is blowing to the south, up is to the north. Southward blowing winds are upwelling favorable in that they force a layer of surface water to flow away from the coast causing subsurface water to replace this water near the coast. The subsurface water is colder. In response to southward blowing winds we usually see a cooling of the surface waters. The bottom panel becomes more blue when this happens.
The top panel shows wind speed and direction measured at the buoy. When the sticks point down then the wind is blowing to the south, up is to the north. Southward blowing winds are upwelling favorable in that they force a layer of surface water to flow away from the coast causing subsurface water to replace this water near the coast. The subsurface water is colder. In response to southward blowing winds we usually see a cooling of the surface waters. The bottom panel becomes more blue when this happens. • The M2 mooring is further away from the coast, the relationship between wind and water temperature is not as strong as it is at M1.
Daily depth of isotherms time series M1 buoy, 1997-99 El Nino signal: Latter half of 1997 La Nina signal: Winter 1998-1999. • http://www.mbari.org/bog/Projects/MOOS/moor_intro.htm
Domoic acid, which causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), is an amino acid phycotoxin (algal toxin) found associated with certain algal blooms. • In 1958, domoic acid was originally isolated from the red alga called "doumoi" or "hanayanagi" (Chondria armata) in Japan. "Doumoi" is used as an anthelmintic in Tokunoshima, Kagoshima. • Domoic acid is also produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. The chemical can bioaccumulate in marine organisms that feed on the phytoplankton, such as shellfish, anchovies, and sardines. In mammals, including humans, domoic acid acts as a neurotoxin, causing short-term memory loss, brain damage, and death in severe cases. Red tides are associated with the phenomenon of ASP. Considerable recent research has been carried out by the Marine Mammal Center and other scientific centers on the association of red tides to domoic acid and to resulting neurological damage in marine mammals of the Pacific Ocean. • In the brain, domoic acid especially damages the hippocampus and amygdaloid nucleus. It damages the neurons by activating AMPA and kainate receptors, causing an influx of calcium. Although calcium flowing into cells is a normal event, the uncontrolled increase of calcium causes the cell to degenerate. • On June 22, 2006, a California brown pelican, possibly under the influence of domoic acid, flew through the windshield of a car on the Pacific Coast Highway. The acid is found in the local seas. • Domoic acid poisoning was the most likely cause of a 1961 invasion of thousands of frantic seabirds in Northern California that inspired Alfred Hitchcock's film The Birds.
Metadata • Describes how and when and by whom a particular set of data were collected • How the data are formatted.