Cell Theory The cell theory states: • All ______ _______are composed of cells • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things • New cells are produced from _________ _________________________.
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote • Prokaryotic cells have genetic material that is NOT contained in a nucleus • Less complicated • Eukaryotic cells contain a NUCLEUS in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell • Contain membrane bound organelles (ex. mitochondria, golgi apparatus, ribosome)
CELL ORGANELLES Organelles are VERY SPECIAL structures that perform important cellular functions. Animal Cell Plant Cell WHATS THE DIFFERENCE?
NUCLEUS • CONTROL CENTER • CONTAINS DNA/RNA and CONTROLS EVERYTHING NUCLEAR ENVELOPE • IT’S SO SPECIAL…..IT GETS ITS OWN MEMBRANE • REGULATES WHAT COMES IN AND OUT
NUCLEUS WHY IS IT SO SPECIAL??
BLOOD CELLS THEY DO NOT HAVE A NUCLEUS ZOMG – What does that mean?
Cell Membrane • FUNCTION: Regulates materials entering and exiting the cell. • STRUCTURE: Two layers of phospholipids, proteins
CYTOPLASM – • PORTION OUTSIDE OF THE NUCLEUS • JELLY LIKE • HOLDS ORGANELLES
MITOCHONDRIA • POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL • MAKES ATP = MAKES ENERGY FOR THE CELL • IT’S SO SPECIAL, IT ALSO GETS ITS OWN MEMBRANE • MIGHTY MITO!
WHAT KIND OF HUMAN CELLS HAVE A LOT OF MITOCHONDRIA?? WHY??
MAKES PROTEIN RIBOSOME
IF A CHEMICAL POISON ENTERED THE CELL AND DAMAGED THE RIBOSOME, WHAT WOULD HAPPEN?
SOME ANTIBIOTICS TARGET THE RIBOSOME OF PROKARYOTES. WHY DID SCIENTISTS DESIGN THEM THAT WAY?
GOLGI COMPLEX – • Sorts and packages proteins for delivery to certain parts of the cell • It’s like The POST OFFICE of The cell
NOTICE THE SHAPE!! NOTICE THE LITTLE SACS COMING OFF THE SIDES. HOW DOES IT PACKAGE STUFF UP? WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF THE GOLGI MADE A MISTAKE?
LYSOSOMES • DIGESTS CELLULAR WASTES • “GARBAGE MAN CREW”
CENTRIOLE – • Located in Animal cells • Help the cell divide • Organizes the microtubules and chromosomes
WHEN IT IS TIME TO DIVIDE AND MAKE ANOTHER CELL…. CENTRIOLES MOVE TO THE OUTSIDE AND HELP MAKE IT HAPPEN LIKE A BOSS…Just Sayin….
PLANTS HAVE ORGANELLES TOO!! REMEMBER, They are EUKARYOTES!
BUT FIRST………… What do you notice about the plant cell?
CELL WALL CELL WALL CELL WALL CELL WALL CELL WALL CELL WALL CELL WALL WHY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!?
Cell walls help a plant keep its shape.
CHLOROPLAST– FOUND IN PLANTS • Take LIGHT from SUN and turn it into Energy! • It’s called PHOTOSYNTHESIS! • They are kinda like mitochondria (ENERGY)
VACUOLE – • Stores stuff like WATER, PROTEINS • PLANTS HAVE A HUGE VACUOLE!!!!! • THEY STORE WATER!
ANIMALS HAVE TINY ONES! Vacuoles store food, water, and other materials that can be used by the cell.
CYTOSKELETON– • SKELETON NETWORK MADE OF PROTEIN FILAMENTS and MICROTUBULES • MAINTAINS CELL SHAPE / PROVIDES STRUCTURE
Endoplasmic Reticulum – assembles lipid components of cell membrane and some proteins are modified Smooth vs. Rough