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Discovering Flight PowerPoint Presentation
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Discovering Flight

Discovering Flight

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Discovering Flight

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  1. Discovering Flight

  2. Chapter Overview • Discovering Flight • The Early Days of Flight Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  3. Lesson Overview • How humans tried to fly in ancient times • Key aviation devices created during ancient times • Why machines do not fly the way birds do Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  4. Warm Up QuestionsCPS Questions(1-2) Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Comstock Images

  5. Quick Write Why do you think the idea of flight is so appealing to people? Does it appeal to you? Why? (Note to Instructor: Use “Pick a Student” button in CPS) Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  6. How Humans Tried to Fly in Ancient Times Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of AKG Images

  7. Flight in Ancient Times • Humans have dreamed of taking flight for thousands of years • Flight is the act of passing through the air on wings • People told tales about flight around the fire at night and handed down these stories to their children Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  8. Daedalus and Icarus • One of the best known is the Greek story of Daedalus and his son, Icarus Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of the Granger Collection, New York

  9. First True Stories of Human Attempts to Fly • Some early inventors made devices of lightweight material in imitation of birds’ or bats’ wings • They strapped the devices onto their arms or legs, and then they would jump from the top of a tower • Unfortunately, none of the devices succeeded Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  10. Armen Firman • A Moor named Armen Firman made the first known human attempt to fly • He put on a huge cloak and jumped from a tower in Cordoba, Spain • He hoped the cloak would open wide like a bat’s wings to slow him on the way down • But it didn’t, and Firman fell to his death Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  11. Armen Firman • His unfortunate experiment might be described as an early attempt at a jump by parachute • A parachute is a device intended to slow free fall from an aircraft or another high point Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  12. Key Aviation Devices From Ancient Times Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

  13. Chinese Kites • The Chinese invented the kite around 1000 BC • A kite is a light framework covered with paper or cloth, provided with a balancing tail, designed to be flown in the air • Within a few hundred years, people were using kites in warfare Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  14. Chinese Gunpowder • In the eight hundreds, the Chinese made another important invention: gunpowder • Gunpowder is an explosive powder made of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur, used to shoot projectiles from guns • 200 years later, the Chinese used gunpowder to make the first simple rockets Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  15. Chinese Rockets • A rocketis alarge, cylindrical object that moves very fast by forcing burning gases out one end of the tube • The Chinese used these devices mostly for celebrations, such as holiday fireworks • But they also used their rockets in battle to scare off the enemy Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  16. Man in the Moon • There’s even a Chinese legend about a rocket trip into space • A legend is anunverified story handed down from earlier times Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

  17. Learning Check #1CPS Questions(3-4) Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Comstock Images

  18. Leonardo da Vinci • The first person in the history of aviation who was also a real scientist was Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of the Library of Congress

  19. A Parachute andA Helicopter • Da Vinci produced the first known designs for a parachute and a helicopter • A helicopter is an aircraft that gets its lift from spinning blades • Da Vinci’s drawing of an “aerial screw” looks a lot like a modern helicopter Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  20. A Parachute andA Helicopter • What’s more, today’s parachutes are based on principles first described by da Vinci • He wrote that his invention would allow someone to “throw himself down from any height without sustaining any injury” Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  21. Gliders • Da Vinci also researched the idea of a glider • A glider is a light aircraft without an engine, designed to glide after being towed aloft or launched from a catapult • Gliders were the first aircraft that had directional control Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  22. Ornithopters • Da Vinci was fascinated with birds and experimented with flapping-wing machines • He worked out designs for ornithopters • An ornithopter is anaircraft designed to get its support and forward motion from flapping wings Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  23. Ornithopters Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of the Granger Collection, New York

  24. Learning Check #2CPS Questions(5-6) Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Comstock Images

  25. Why Machines Do Not Fly the Way Birds Do Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Comstock Images

  26. Principles of Bird Flight • A bird’s flight is similar to an airplane’s in some ways and different in others • There are two phases of bird flight: • A ground phase • And a lift phase Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  27. Birds’ Wings • Wing feathers are arranged much like shingles on a roof • They change position when the bird is flapping • On the downbeat of the wing, the feathers are pressed together so little air can pass through them • On the up stroke the feathers open Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  28. Daniel Bernoulli • The Dutch-born scientist Daniel Bernoulli (1700–1782) discovered that a fluid has a constant pressure, but when a fluid starts to move faster, the pressure drops Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Taken from wikipedia.com

  29. Bernoullian Lift • Wings are designed to make air flow faster over their tops—this makes the pressure drop and the wings move upward, defying the force of gravity • This phenomenon is known as Bernoullian lift or induced lift Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  30. Sir Isaac Newton • The Englishman Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) formulated three famous laws of motion Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Taken from wikipedia.com

  31. Newtonian Lift • The third law states, “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction” • For example, when a pilot angles the wing of the plane up against the oncoming wind, the action of the wind causes a reaction by the wing • This reaction provides some additional lift, known as Newtonian or dynamiclift Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  32. Why Some Ancient Inventors Tried to Mimic Bird Flight • At the beginning of aviation history, flapping wings seemed to be what flight was all about • People observed birds, bats, and insects flying this way • Some early inventors thought feathers might possess some lifting power of their own Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  33. Why Some Ancient Inventors Tried to Mimic Bird Flight • And even a thinker as brilliant as da Vinci got stuck on birds as the model for human flight • Only when people stopped trying to fly as birds do did the way open for the Wright brothers’ success on the North Carolina dunes Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  34. Learning Check #3CPS Questions(7-8) Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Comstock Images

  35. Review • Humans have dreamed of taking flight for thousands of years • Some early inventors made devices of lightweight material such as cloth or wood, in imitation of birds’ or bats’ wings • The Chinese invented the kite around 1000 BC • They also invented gunpowder and rockets Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  36. Review • Leonardo da Vinci produced the first known designs for a parachute and a helicopter • Da Vinci also researched the idea of a glider and some designs for ornithopters • There are two phases of bird flight—a ground phase and a lift phase Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  37. Review • Wings are designed to make air flow faster over their tops • This makes the pressure drop and the wings move upward, defying the force of gravity—this is known as Bernoullian lift or induced lift • Newton’s third law of motion states, “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction” • This reaction provides some additional lift, known as Newtonian or dynamiclift Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  38. Review • By now you’re beginning to understand that birds and airplanes don’t work exactly alike: Airplanes are fixed-wing aircraft and rely on their propellers to get them off the ground Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  39. Review QuestionsCPS Questions(9-10) Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Comstock Images

  40. Summary • How humans tried to fly in ancient times • Key aviation devices created during ancient times • Why machines do not fly the way birds do Chapter 1, Lesson 1

  41. Next…. • Done—discovering flight • Next—the early days of flight Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Bettman/Corbis