Download
life span development i chapter 12 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Life Span Development I Chapter 12 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Life Span Development I Chapter 12

Life Span Development I Chapter 12

293 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Life Span Development I Chapter 12

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Life Span Development IChapter 12 Dr. Arra

  2. Theories of Child Development • Psychoanalytic • Freud • 3 structures to personality • ID: instinctual, raw, primal, amoral, unconscious structure • EGO: deals with demands of reality reasons and makes decisions conscious and unconscious structure amoral (no right or wrong)

  3. Theories of Child Development • SUPEREGO: moral structure takes into account right and wrong conscious • The three structures are at odds

  4. Theories of Child Development • Defense mechanisms- unconscious way the ego uses to protect itself from anxiety • Ex: repression, displacement, sublimation • Repression – most powerful defense mechanism (pushing thoughts down into the unconscious mind) • Freud thought that the impulses that we repress are sexually related

  5. Theories of Child Development • PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT • Erogenous zones- pleasure giving areas of the body • Freud thought that adult personality is determined by the way conflicts between erogenous zones are resolved

  6. Theories of Child Development • I. Oral Stage (0-18mos.) conflict- adult: mistrustful, greedy, fear of relationships • Anal Stage (1.5-3yrs.) conflict- adult: independent, controlling, stingy, clean, hoard

  7. Theories of Child Development • III. Phallic (3-6 yrs.) genitals are enjoyable Oedipus Complex Electra Complex Penis Envy • IV. Latency (6-12 yrs.) no sexual interest develop intellectual skills, socialization skills, schooling, hobbies

  8. Theories of Child Development • Genital Stage (12>) sexual pleasure with someone else

  9. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory • Trust vs. mistrust (0-1 year) • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3 years) • Initiative vs. guilt (3-6 years) • Industry vs. inferiority (6 yrs to puberty) • Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence) • Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood) • Generativity vs. stagnation (middle age) • Ego integrity vs. despair (old age)

  10. Piaget and Cognition • Cognitive reasoning is primitive at birth and changes from infancy to adulthood • Schemas are the basic units of intellect • Cognitive adaptation reflects the actions of two complementary processes: • Assimilation: absorbing new information into existing schemas • Accommodation: adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with the new information

  11. Cognitive Development Stages • Sensorimotor period: Birth through age 2 • Infant schemas are developed through sensory and motor skills • Object permanence • Preoperational period: Age 2 to 7 • Child begins to use mental representations, but problem solving is limited • Egocentrism • Animism • Concrete operations: Age 7 to 11 • Child performs mental operations (conservation) • Formal operations: Age 12 through adulthood • Child can use formal problem-solving and higher level abstract thinking • Egocentrism (personal fable, imaginary audience)

  12. Conservation • Conservation is the ability to recognize that a given quantity, weight or volume remains the same despite changes in shape, length, or position

  13. Theories of Child Development • Vygotsky

  14. Limitations of Stage Theories • Invariant • No skipping • No regressing • Age parameters • Universal • Not all children progress at same rates

  15. Developmental Research • Longitudinal Studies • Cross-sectional Studies

  16. Developmental Research Methods

  17. Key Issue in Developmental Psychology • NATURE VS. NURTURE

  18. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • Germinal Period (conception-2 wks.) zygote travels from ovaries to uterus attaches to uterine wall at day 10 rapid mitotic cell division is occurring Ectopic pregnancies

  19. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • Embryonic Period (2 – 8 weeks after conception) cell division is rapid organs appear BLASTOCYST: bundle of cells endoderm- inner layer: digestive, respiratory, inner organs ectoderm – outer layer; skin, ears, nose, eyes, hair, CNS mesoderm – middle layer; circulatory system, bones, muscles

  20. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • TROPOBLAST – will become support; placenta, umbilical cord • Umbilical cord: 1 vein from mom to baby 2 arteries from baby to mom • Amniotic sac • Amniotic fluid

  21. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • FETAL PERIOD (8 wks.>) fetus is active and moving weighs one ounce facial features and body parts are distinguishable sex can be determined

  22. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • 5 mos.: weight 4/7 ounces 6 inches long • 7 mos.: weight 1.5 – 2 lbs. 14 inches long eyes complete, hair on head, irregular breathing • 8/9 month: much weight gain organ functioning increasing fatty tissue develops • BIRTH: average 7 lbs. 20 inches

  23. Prenatal Development • Prenatal development occurs in 3 stages: • Ovulation to implantation: the ovum travels down the fallopian tube, is fertilized by a sperm, and is then implanted within the wall of the uterus • Embryonic period: implantation to 8 weeks • Fetal stage: 8 weeks to birth

  24. Teratogens • Teratogens are environmental substances that can cause birth defects in the developing fetus • Maternal alcohol use leads to fetal alcohol syndrome (facial defects, low IQ, neurobehavioral defects) • Nicotine exposure leads to premature births, low birth weights, fetal deaths, cognitive problems, behavioral abnormalities

  25. Prenatal Hazards • Poor maternal nutrition can impair fetal development • Drug use by father can damage sperm: • Alcohol, opiates, cocaine, lead, and various gases are known to damage sperm