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Antebellum Reform Movements

Antebellum Reform Movements

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Antebellum Reform Movements

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  1. Antebellum Reform Movements Change in the 19th Century

  2. Nationalism & Romanticism • Expression of inner spirit • Connection to nature • New ideas about American identity

  3. Hudson River School – Thomas Cole

  4. Hudson River School – Thomas Cole

  5. Winslow Homer

  6. Charles Bulfinch

  7. American Literature & American Identity • James Fenimore Cooper “Leatherstocking Tales” Last of the Mohicans • Walt Whitman – poet of America • Washington Irving • Herman Melville – Moby Dick • Edgar Allen Poe – “The Raven” • Henry Longfellow

  8. Transcendentalism • Philosophical & social movement influenced by romanticism and focusing on nature, reason, and understanding. • Concord, MA • Ralph Waldo Emerson – “Nature, “ “Self-Reliance” • Henry David Thoreau - Walden • Margaret Fuller – finding self through reform • Theodore Parker

  9. Utopian Communities • Brook Farm – transcendentalism • George Ripley founder • New Harmony • Robert Owen – founded – “Village of Cooperation” • Oneida Community • John Humphrey Noyes – Perfectionists; children raised communally, no marriage, liberation of women from male lust • Shakers • “Mother” Ann Lee – founder – unique religious ritual, commitment to complete celibacy, more women than men, controlled contact b/t men and woman, equality, social discipline.

  10. Oneida Community

  11. “Mother” Ann Lee

  12. Mormons • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints • John Smith • Book of Mormon • Followers persecuted across the Northwest for radical religious doctrines including polygamy and secrecy • Nouvoo, Illinois – large Mormon community with private army • 1844 Smith was killed by an angry mob in Illinois • Brigham Young led the group (12,000) to Utah

  13. Revivalism • Part of the Second Great Awakening • Every individual was capable of salvation • Reform through the Protestant church • “Burned-over district” in New York

  14. Temperance Crusade • Excessive use of alcohol targeted • Burden on wives • Abuse of wives and children • Movement was dominated by women • Promote moral self-improvement and discipline • Protestants v. Catholics • Nativism

  15. Reforming Education • Reforming Education • Horace Mann – protect democracy • Expansion of public education • Perkins School for the Blind • Education for social order – McGuffey’s Readers • Noah Webster

  16. Prison & Hospital Reform • Early 19th Century Jails – criminals, debtors, mentally ill, senile paupers • Asylums and Penitentiary (from the word penitence)– reform and rehabilitate the inhabitants and • Dorothea Dix – national movement for new methods of treating the mentally ill • Orphanage reform • Almshouses and workhouses

  17. Feminism • Sarah & Angelina Grimké • Catharine Beecher • Harriet Beecher Stowe • Lucretia Mott • Elizabeth Cady Stanton • Dorothea Dix • Elizabeth Blackwell • Amelia Bloomer

  18. Abolitionism • American Colonization Society • Gradual manumission with compensation of masters • Settlement of Liberia

  19. William Lloyd Garrison • Liberator newspaper • Focus on damage to blacks • Immediate, unconditional, universal abolition • African Americans – all rights of American citizenship • American Antislavery Society

  20. Black Abolitionists • David Walker • Sojourner Truth • Frederick Douglass

  21. Moderates v. Extremists

  22. Amistad Case

  23. Liberty Party • Free Soiler party • Antislavery did not always = abolitionism