Leadership • Leadership versus Management • leader? • manager?
Leadership • Definition: • "Leadership is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential.“ • Warren Bennis, Ph.D., is University Professor and Distinguished Professor of Business Administration at the University of Southern California • "Leadership is the process of persuasion and example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to take action that is in accord with the leader's purpose, or the shared purposes of all." • -John W. Gardner, US administrator; Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 1965-1968
Operational versus Strategic Leadership • Strategic • planning for the organization's long range development formulating a strategic vision managing the corporate culture • Operational • process of influencing members of an organization to achieve established long term and short term goals on a day-to-day basis.
Leadership • THEORY X • Human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can. • The only way to get people to work is to control and threaten them. • People dislike responsibility
Leadership • Theory Y • Work is as natural as rest or play. • If a job is satisfying then it leads to commitment to the organization • And good performance. • Under the proper circumstances people accept and seek responsibility. • Theory X managers elicit theory x behavior because of the way they treat employees.
Leadership • Flamholtz Leadership Effectiveness • Effective leadership depends on using a leadership style that is appropriate to the situation. • Factors: • 1. The leader’s evaluation of the WORK to be done • 2. The leader’s evaluation of the PEOPLE doing the work • 3. The leader’s balance between • emphasis on Work and • emphasis on People
Flamholtz Leadership Effectiveness • Factors: Evaluation of the Work to be done • How complex are the tasks? • How much analysis is required in each situation? • How well defined / structured are the tasks? • How predictable are the conditions that may occur? CLERICAL TECHNICAL MANAGERIAL High Structure/ High Predictability Low Structure/ Low Predictability
Flamholtz Leadership Effectiveness • Factors: Evaluation of the People doing the work • Level of job autonomy (ability to do the work correctly without close supervision) • Depends on: • Experience and background • Training and education • Motivation
Flamholtz Leadership Effectiveness • Effective leadership depends on using a leadership style that is appropriate to the situation. • Factors: Balance between • concern for Work and • concern for People
Flamholtz Leadership Effectiveness • Leadership Styles • Directive (Leader makes the decision alone) • Autocratic Declares what is to be done without explanation • Benevolent Declares what is to be done with explanation • Interactive (Leader makes the decision with input from others • Consultative Gets opinions before making decision • Participative Discusses alternatives with others before making decision • Non-directive (Leader defines the goal and leaves implementation choices to others) • Consensus The leader and subordinates have equal voice in making decisions • Laissez-Faire The leader delegates the decision making authority.