History of Sport Psych • Chinese and Greek Civilizations -“Healthy mind in a healthy body • 1800s -First sport psychology research -Effects of audience on cyclist performance • Past Three Decades -Recognition and growth of sport psychology discipline
Growth of Sport Psychology • Sport psychology has only recently developed and grown due to: 1. Expansion of scientific knowledge and emergence of different branches 2. Increased media attention
Outline • In this section you will be introduced to the following sport psychology issues: -Influence of personality on performance - Effect of sport on personality - Relationship between anxiety and performance - Effect of motivation on sport performance - Effects of the audience on athletic accomplishments
Personality: Pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings and behaviours that distinguish one person from another and persist over time and situations.
The study of personality in sport psychology can help us answer the following questions: *Do athletes possess different personality characteristics than non-athletes? *Do winners possess different personality profiles than losers? *Does personality determine sport preference, or does a particular sport mould our personality accordingly? *Can personality be changed, or does it remain relatively fixed throughout involvement in sport?
Personalities of Athletes vs. Non- Athletes • Compared to non-athletes, athletes are more: • Stable • Extroverted • Competitive • Dominant • Self-confident • Achievement oriented • Psychologically well adjusted • Conservative with respect to political views • Authoritarian • Persistant • Display higher levels of self esteem
Personalities of Athletes vs. Non- Athletes Although differences exist, clear pattern of differences has yet to emerge
Definitions • Personality traits: psychological characteristics of the athlete which remain relatively stable over time • Personality states: “right now kinds of feelings” which are situation-specific • State-trait controversy: disagreement of the relative merits of studying states versus traits • Interactional theory: the best state-trait approach, which considers personality traits and states, as well
It is NOT yet possible to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful athletes using personality traits • However, it is possible to distinguish between the elite athletes and the lesser skilled in terms of mood states
Mood States of Elite vs. Non-Elite Athletes • Mood states of elite athletes vs lesser skilled athletes are below in: • Tension • Depression • Fatigue • Anger • Confusion AND ARE MARKEDLY HIGHER IN VIGOR
Iceberg Profile • This mood state profile resembles an iceberg and is therefore often referred to as the iceberg profile
Are personality differences due to the athletic experience?ORDo certain personality traits cause the individual to go out for sports( gravitational hypothesis)?*Evidence tends to support the gravitational hypothesis*HOWEVER, participation in sports can also enhance personality development
Personality and the Athlete:Conclusions • Athletes tend to be more extroverted, independent and self-confident than non-athletes: they also tend to be less anxious • Elite athletes can be distinguished from lesser skilled athlete by means of the iceberg profile: it is not possible, however, to distinguish between winners and losers • Individuals with certain personality traits tend to gravitate toward sports;sport also has the potential to enhance certain personality traits
Arousal • Physiological state of readiness and psychological activation • Involves the autonomic nervous system • Body’s way of preparing you for “fight or flight”
Stress • Non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it • Unemotional bodily response to some type of stressor • Can be either good or bad, depending upon the individual’s personal interpretation • Eustress ie winning the lottery • Distress ie receiving a failing grade on a midterm test
Anxiety • Tension and worry that results from distress • A negatively charged emotional state characterized by discomfort and nervousness • Two forms of anxiety: • Trait anxiety: a personality characteristic • State anxiety: a “right now” kind of anxiety
Anxiety Cont’d • Two components of state anxiety: 1. Cognitive state anxiety (psychological component) • Caused by fear of failure • Result of worrying • “I am afraid I am going to lose” • Somatic state anxiety (physical component) *perception of physiological responses *’I feel nervous before a major contest”
Pre-Competitive Anxiety • Temporal changes in cognitive and somatic state anxiety as competition approaches
The Effect of Pre-competitive Anxiety on Performance • Relationship between somatic anxiety and performance takes the for of an inverted-U • See graph in Text • Relationship between cognitive anxiety and athletic performance has been shown to be linear and negative.
Implications • Increases in somatic anxiety are associated with improved athletic performance up to a certain optimal level; therefore, athletes should attempt to increase their somatic anxiety up to an optimal level by “psyching –up” or “getting pumped up” • The level the of cognitive state anxiety, the better the athlete will perform; therefore, athletes must learn to deal with the symptoms of cognitive anxiety.
What are some symptoms of Cognitive State Anxiety? • Use your text. • Provide several examples
Relaxation Interventions to lower CS Anxiety • Progressive Muscular Relaxation (PMR) • Takes time initially, but with practice can be completed in minutes • High Value the night before. • Dave Heinbuch
Relax Interventions • Positive Imagery. • Needs practice
More Relax Interventions • Positive Self Talk • Reassuring one’s self • Give some examples.