Sport Psychology An Introduction
History of North American Sport Psychology • 1897: Norman Triplett studies social facilitation with cyclists. • Coleman Roberts Griffith: • Father of North American sport psychology • First sport psychology laboratory, University of Illinois, 1925 • Psychology of Coaching (1926) • Psychology and Athletics (1928) • Hired by Wrigley family
History • 1965: International Society for Sport Psychology (ISSP) founded in Rome. • 1967: North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA ) founded. • 1985: APA approves the formation of the Division of Exercise and Sport Psychology (Division 47). • 1986: The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP) holds first meeting.
Sport Psychology Today • Several college campuses have sport psychologists in their counseling centers or athletic departments. • Coaching education for youth and high school sports often includes mandatory sport psychology training. • Professional sports teams have sport psychologists on staff. • 12 sport psychologists were credentialed to work with teams at the 2002 Winter Olympic Games.
Chapter 1 Motivation: The Need to Achieve By John F. Eliot
Motivation and Drive • Norman Triplett • First formal experiment in sport motivation, 1889 • Now referred to as social facilitation • Biological determinism • Freud: Aggression, sex drive • Environmental determinism • B.F. Skinner: Reinforcement theory
Motivation • The nature-nurture controversy • Drive theory (nature): the search for traits • Reinforcement theory (nurture)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation • Intrinsic motivation:Participation is inherently pleasurable. Make a list of the intrinsic factors that influence your choice of physical activities. • Extrinsic motivation:Participation is rewarded. Make a list of the extrinsic factors that influence your choice of physical activities.
Discussion Question • Can extrinsic rewards decrease an athlete’s intrinsic motivation?
Self-Efficacy • The belief or confidence that one will successfully perform a task. • High self-confidence is a judgment that one is capable of performing a task • at an elevated level, • with certainty, and • repeatedly over time. • Self-efficacy increases motivation.
Goal Orientation • Task-mastery orientation: Focus on improvement relative to one’s own past performances. • Ego orientation: Focus on social comparisons and demonstrating superiority. (continued)
Goal Orientation (cont) • Motivational climate: The environmental factors that focus attention on either the task-mastery or ego aspects of sport participation.
Attributions • Internal vs. External • “I lost focus on that interception.” • “The ref made a bad call.” • Stable vs. Unstable • “I am a poor leader.” • “I made a bad decision then.” • Controllable vs. Uncontrollable • “I need to calm down.” • “I need to beat this team.”
Higher Performance Consciousness • Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi • Study of artists • Coined the term “flow” • The conditions of flow • A challenging activity that requires skills • The merging of action and awareness • Clear goals and feedback • Concentration on the task at hand • Loss of self-consciousness • Transformation of time
Motivation and Flow • The flow experience appears similar to being in the “zone.” • Experiencing flow is highly motivating. • To maximize flow, coaches and athletes should strive to create a balanced, present-oriented, focused performance environment.
Building Motivation • The role of the leader • Know an athlete’s sources of internal motivation. • Provide feedback and cues congruent with motivational orientation. • Motivational strategies should foster – autonomy, – competence, and – connectedness.
Long-Term Motivational Strategies • Push the edge. • Experience success. • Change your thinking. • Get involved. • Praise others. • Vary training. • Put yourself first. • Find motivated peers. • Think positively. • Remember your dream.