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LEADERSHIP. Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills 11 th Edition David W. Johnson Frank P. Johnson. What Makes a Leader a Leader?. What is a leader? What is leadership? Who do you think of when hearing the word “leader”? What makes a leader a leader? Genetic traits?
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LEADERSHIP Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills 11th Edition David W. Johnson Frank P. Johnson
What Makes a Leader a Leader? • What is a leader? What is leadership? Who do you think of when hearing the word “leader”? • What makes a leader a leader? • Genetic traits? • Style of leadership? • Ability to influence others? • Occupation of position of authority? • Ability to provide helpful behaviors in diverse situations?
Theories of Leadership • Trait theories • Leadership styles • Influence theory of leadership • Role position theory of leadership • Situational theories of leadership • Organizational leadership
Trait Theories of Leadership • Leaders are born, not made. “Great man/woman” • Which traits are essential for leadership? • Findings: intelligence, initiative, sense of humor, extroversion, personal adjustment, etc. • BUT little predictive or diagnostic value • Problems with the trait theory: • Unlimited number of traits can be identified • Different traits are needed under different conditions • “great leaders” are identified after the fact (not predicted)
Charismatic and Machiavellian Leaders • Charismatic leaders have: • An extraordinary vision they are able to communicate well • Unusual power of leadership • Sense of mission, a belief in the social change movement they lead • Self-confidence • Machiavellian leaders believe: • People are basically weak, fallible, and gullible and not really trustworthy • Others are impersonal objects • One should manipulate others when necessary in order to achieve one’s goals
Leadership Styles • Lewin, Lippitt, and White (1939)’s classic study on the relationship between leadership style and productivity • Unlimited number of styles can be identified • Different styles of leadership may be effective under different circumstances
Influence Theory of Leadership • Leader: a group member exerting more influence on other group members than they exert on him • Reciprocal role relationship between leaders and followers
Role Position Approach to Leadership • Leader: a person who holds a position of authority • Problems: • Unclear how someone gets into a leadership position • Leaders don’t always display leadership behaviors, and subordinates often engage in leadership actions • Subordinates will be influenced by outsiders
Situational Theories of Leadership • The distributed actions theory of leadership • Any group member may become a leader by taking action to help the group • Any leadership action can be fulfilled by different members • Leadership is specific to a particular group in a particular situation • Interaction - Process Analysis • Fiedler’s Situational Theory of Leadership
Organizational Leadership • Challenge the status quo • Inspire a clear mutual vision • Empower members through cooperative teamwork • Lead by example • Encourage the hearts of group members to persist
Summary • Small group leadership has been conceptualized in lots of different ways • Organizational leadership involves challenging the status quo, inspiring a mutual vision, empowering members through teams, leading by example, and by encouraging the heart • Leadership and participation need to be distributed among all group members • Higher productivity (the resources of all members are used) • Commitment to implementing the group decisions • Satisfaction with group membership