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Compact Green Cities: From an Oxymoron to a Target

Compact Green Cities: From an Oxymoron to a Target

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Compact Green Cities: From an Oxymoron to a Target

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  1. Compact Green Cities: From an Oxymoron to a Target Dr. Kjell NilssonDanish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning University of Copenhagen

  2. ”A spectre is haunting Europe . . .”

  3. The American Dream – A nightmare for Europe

  4. Land taken from nature and agriculture Artificial surfaces Land returned to nature and agriculture 1 Mill. ha 0,1 Mill. ha 16 Billion ha +5 % Developments in land cover in EU25 between 1990 and 2000 EEA Report No 10/2006 Urban Sprawl in Europe

  5. Urban Growth & Shrinkage Since the mid 1950s European cities have expanded on average by 78 %, whereas the population has grown only by 33 %

  6. Urbanization on the edges of existing agglomerations Randstad, NL Leipzig - Halle, DE

  7. SRES variant scenarios Economic Global B1 – Smart growth (peak oil) Shock – peak oil & energy price A1 – High growth (hyper-tech) Shock – rapid ICT development Environ- mental Economic Economic B2 – Fragmentation (green enclaves) Shock – pandemic & social exclusion A2 – Self-reliance (extreme water) Shock – climate change & water crises Regional

  8. Urban sprawl- negative consequences • Consumption of land, loss of agricultural land and open space • Destruction of biotopes and fragmentation of ecosystems • Higher cost of public services, especially transport • Increase of the use of private car, traffic congestion • Increase in fuel consumption and air pollution • Decay of downtown areas • Social segregation and reduction of social interaction • Poor access to to services for those with limited mobility (SCATTER project)

  9. Urban Density and Energy Consumption

  10. Compact City Vulnerable City

  11. The potential conflict between mitigation and adaptation Mitigation Adaptation Urban density

  12. The potential conflict between mitigation and adaptation Mitigation Adaptation Urban density

  13. Oxymoron:Compact Green City Stockholm Copenhagen Helsinki

  14. 1. Better coordination between transport, land use and open space planning

  15. 2. Preservation of the green infrastructure for walking and cycling Copenhagen Stockholm Hämeenlinna

  16. 3. Create new urban landscapes of a Compact Garden City Malmo Malmo Oslo

  17. 4. Urban containment and integrated territorial policy approaches

  18. 5. Promotion of the Urban-Rural Interface Tampere Guangzhou

  19. Ecosystem & QoL Services in the peri-urban Landscape Air quality Ground water Biodiversity 10 EUR/kg (game) 80-320 EUR/ha 0.145 EUR/m3 Health Recreation Social inclusion 0.5-1.0 EUR/visit 755 EUR/prevented theft 100 EUR/saved absence day

  20. EU grants (CAP) Pasture 110-250 EUR/hectare Old building 18 EUR Open ditches 6 EUR/100 metres Solitary tree 6 EUR Stone walls 25 EUR/100 metres

  21. Urban Forestry, Peri-Urban Agriculture Community Activity & Learning Centres Edinburgh Malmo den Haag

  22. Peri-urban Land Use Relationships (PLUREL) 2007-2010 • Models and strategies to enhance the understanding and handling of relationships between rural, peri-urban and urban land uses • Study and model the demands and competition for resources in Rural-Urban regions • Land-use scenarios for Rural-Urban regions in Europe • To explore case study regions in order to analyse the implications of planning policies and governance structures, and identify strategies for sustainable development • To assess environmental, social and economis impacts of land use changes • Enhance learning, cooperation and communication between policy makers, stakeholders, planners and researchers

  23. Haaglanden Leipzig Manchester Warsaw Montpellier Hangzhou Case study regions Koper

  24. PLUREL Newsletter

  25. WWW.PLUREL.NET