Dietary Supplements Tristen Ollendyke
What is a Dietary Supplement? • The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act defines dietary supplement as a product intended to supplement the diet or bears or contains one of the following ingredients: a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical dietary substance for use in the diet by increasing the total dietary intake
A dietary supplement is also defined as a product which has the following properties: Contains nutrients in amounts similar to the level specified by the recommended dietary allowances to intakes (RDA/RDIs) and similar to amounts found in food. Provides a convenient or practical means of ingesting nutrients especially in a sports setting. Allows or aids in achievement of known physiologic or nutritional requirements of an athlete. Contains nutrients in large amounts for use in reversing a known nutritional deficiency. (Burke and Read, 1993)
Sports Supplements • Sports supplements are used to enhance athletic performance, also known as ergogenic aids • Most of them are available without a prescription and over the counter • Come in forms such as: vitamins, hormones, and synthetic (man made) drugs
Legal? • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) normally checks out food and medicine before they can be sold on the market, but does not check dietary supplements before they are sold. The FDA waits until there is a report against the supplements before they will investigate it.
What about NCAA? • Since most supplements aren’t looked at by the FDA, the NCAA doesn’t have any regulations on most of the supplements. • One supplement that is banned is Ephedra
Ephedra • - Ephedra is an herb, also known as Ma Huang • - called a Performance enhancing drug • - Most often taken for weight loss or weight control • - Linked to cardiac problems and strokes • - National Football League was first to ban in 2001
Ephedra • The FDA banned Ephedra in April of 2004 citing “an unreasonable risk of illness or injury” • In 2005, the ban on Ephedra was struck down claiming that the drug was safe if taken in the recommended amounts • As of July 2005, supplement manufactures have yet to reintroduce ephedra back into their product lines.
Synephrine • - Main active compound found in the fruit Citrus Aurantium • - Common substitute for ephedrine in diet pills that are labeled “ephedra free” • - the fruit is also called bitter orange, green orange, and sour orange • - may also see it labeled as pseudo-ephedrine • - can find it in many over the counter cold/allergy medications and also in many energy drinks
Synephrine • - NCAA banned substance • - increases caloric expenditure, fat burner, can increase energy levels, and promotes weight loss • - thought to have the same negative side effects as ehpedra • - studies show no credible evidence on the effects on humans
Creatine • - NOT banned by NCAA • - Naturally exists in your body • - commonly found in foods such as meat and fish • - Creatine aids in restoring the supply of your body's most important energy-producing chemical, ATP, or adenosine triphosphate.
Creatine • Supplement labels state that "creatine is converted to phosphocreatine, which is important for short energy bursts such as sprinting and weight lifting" and that "depletion of phosphocreatine can result in muscle fatigue and fading muscle power." • Claims are also made that supplementation increases muscle body mass.
Creatine • -Without taking supplements, your body replenishes creatine at the rate of 2 grams per day • - Individuals with low amounts of creatine benefit the most from taking creatine supplements • - Causes weight gain that is thought to be gains in muscle mass, but actually from water retention
Creatine • Individuals taking creatine supplements often report muscle cramping (25%), dehydration(25%), heat intolerance, and weight gain (13%) • Other problems that have been reported to the FDA include seizures, anxiety, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmia, and deep vein thrombosis
Vitamins and Minerals • - Contribute to the process of energy metabolism, nerve function, immune function. • - Physical activity increases the need for some vitamins and minerals. Ideally, such requirements should be met by maintaining a balanced, high carbohydrate diet with moderate protein and low fat (ADA.)
Vitamins and Minerals • - Athletes can use vitamin and mineral supplements to increase strength or muscle mass, enhance anaerobic and aerobic capacity, increase mental well-being, accelerate post-exercise recovery, or reduce body fat • - Excessive consumption can lead to liver damage, nausea, inflammation of the oral cavity, dermatitis, muscle weakness, and fatigue. Excessive use of iron may lead to inhibition of electrolyte and trace elements absorption. Zinc supplements may lower HDL levels and lower copper and iron levels in the blood (ADA, 1999).
References • Nutritional Supplements The National Center for Drug Free Sport (2003) www.drugfreesport.com • The NCAA News www.ncaa.org • Lulinski, Beth M.S., R.D. Creatine Supplementation www.quackwatch.org • Synephrine www.chasefreedom.com