Expert Opinion • Because performance enhancing pills, powders, bars, and drinks are supplements, not drugs, the Food and Drug Administration does not require them to be tested for safety or effectiveness, nor are their claims as tightly regulated. • Organizations such as the AAP, GSSI, and ACSM do not recommend the use of supplements in athletes younger than 18 years of age.
Caffeine • Caffeine is part of WADA's Monitoring Program. • This program includes substances which are not prohibited in sport, but which WADA monitors in order to detect patterns of misuse in sport. • IOC (International Olympic Committee) acceptable maximum is 12 ug/mL urine • This level is equal to 6 -8 cups of brewed coffee consumed in a 2 hour period • 3 mg/kg is ergogenic (ergogoenic=performance enhancing) • Do the math! A 150 pound athlete is 68 kg (2.2 lbs/kg) * 3 mg/kg = 204 mg, or a medium Dunkin Donuts coffee
Caffeine Comparisons • Coca-Cola (12 oz): 34 mg • Coke Zero (12 oz): 34 mg • Mountain Dew (12 oz, regular or diet): 54 mg • Starbucks brewed coffee (16 oz): 320 mg • Dunkin Donuts regular coffee (16 oz): 206 mg • Peach Snapple (16 oz): 42 mg • Monster Energy Drink (16 oz): 160 mg • Red Bull (8.3 oz, regular or Sugar Free): 80 mg • Ben & Jerry’s Coffee Ice Cream (1 cup): 68 mg • Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Bar: 9 mg • Hershey’s Special Dark Chocolate Bar: 20 mg
Creatine • Surveys indicate that 17-74% of athletes of various ages in a variety of sports use it. • It is a naturally occurring chemical in the human body- we can make one or two grams of creatine per day from amino acids in the liver, kidney, and pancreas. • Creatine is not a banned substance in Olympic competition, nor is it found on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of prohibited substances.
Creatine Continued • There is reasonable support creatine supplementation aids in short-duration (5-30 seconds), repetitive bursts of anaerobic exercise • It has not been found to be beneficial with endurance activities • Creatine is naturally found in meats and fish, therefore vegetarians who avoid these products may have lower creatine stores • Oral ingestion of creatine can increase the small storage capacity of it in skeletal muscle only in certain athletes, resulting in a potential increase in muscle size and strength • Results of supplementation may be dependent on stores. Those with already low stores (vegans, vegetarians) may have greater results
Protein Powder • Likely safe when used appropriately, but most athletes can get enough protein through diet! • Casein • Digested slowly • Prevents protein breakdown • Whey • Digested quickly • Increases protein synthesis • Main amino acid is Leucine which is found in many food sources so a supplement may not be necessary! • There are 2.15 g of Leucine in 3 oz of cooked beef, 2 g found in 3 oz of cooked chicken, and 1.75 g in 3 oz of tuna
DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) • Precursor to testosterone • Considered to be a “fountain of youth” because it diminishes with age • Recent studies show no muscle building abilities
Facts about “Stacks” • Stacking refers to the process of combining two or more supplements in order to enhance the effects of each. • Combining or stacking supplements generally increases the risk of harmful side effects • Before you begin taking any supplement stack, talk with your doctor about any health risks or potential side effects.
Anabolic Steroids • Biological agents that are illegal to use to enhance sports performance!!! • Side Effects: • Breast Growth • Testicle Shrinkage • Baldness • Infertility • Heart disease • Liver Disease • High Blood Pressure • High Cholesterol
Cross- Contamination • Watch out!!!!!!!! • Supplement use enhances risk of cross-contamination • Can cause athletes to test positive for banned substances • Creators not required to list all ingredients because products are not FDA approved • Supplements known to be contaminated with things such as lead and arsenic! Yuck!
Supplement Facts vs Nutrition Facts • Conventional foods must have a "Nutrition Facts" panel on their labels, but dietary supplements must have a "Supplement Facts" panel • A dietary supplement is a product taken by mouth that is intended to supplement the diet and that contains one or more "dietary ingredients." The "dietary ingredients" in these products may include • vitamins • minerals • herbs or other botanicals • amino acids • other substances found in the human diet, such as enzymes
G-Series: PRIME • Purpose is to fuel Pre-Event • Serving size: 1 pouch (118 ml) • 100 calories, 110mg sodium, 35mg potassium, 25g carbohydrate Vs • Pre-event snack of 6oz plain, low fat yogurt and a small banana • 107 calories, 119mg sodium, 398mg potassium, 12g carbohydrate in the yogurt and 90 calories, 1mg sodium, 362mg potassium, and 23g carbohydrate in the banana
G-Series: PERFORM • Purpose is to fuel during the event • Gatorade Original (8oz serving; 4 servings per bottle): • 8oz serving: 50 cal, 110mg Na, 30mg potassium, 14g carbs – per serving Vs • Water
G-Series: RECOVER • Purpose is to replenish post event • Gatorade (2 – 8oz servings per bottle): • 8 oz serving: 110 calories, 8g protein, 105mg sodium, 40mg potassium, 20g carbohydrate Vs • 8oz Low Fat Chocolate Milk: • 158 calories, 8g protein, 153mg sodium, 425mg potassium, 26g carbohydrate
G2 Perform- Low Calorie Option • Purpose is to fuel lighter practices and off day training • 20 calories, 110mg sodium, 30mg sodium, 5g carbs in 1 8oz serving (4 servings per bottle) • Same amount of sodium and potassium as original Perform drink, but less carbohydrates and calories
G2- Low Calorie Option Cont’d • Artificial Coloring • Enables you to tell different flavors apart. • All colors and ingredients in Gatorade qualify for human consumption according to the requirements of the FDA • Colors added at the lowest possible level to achieve the desired color. • Sucralose • No-calorie artificial sweetener used in G2 low cal option • The safety of sucralose is well documented in more than 100 scientific studies conducted over a 20-year period.
Seeya Later, Supplements! • No amount of supplements can make up for poor nutrition! • What can an athlete do to enhance performance without supplement use? • EAT BREAKFAST • STAY HYDRATED • FUEL PRE EVENT • RELOAD POST EVENT