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Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Plantae

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Kingdom Plantae

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  1. Kingdom Plantae 1

  2. Unit Goals(as they relate to plants) • Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells. • a. Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis and cell reproduction. • d. Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion). • Students will analyze how biological traits are passed on to successive generations. • e. Compare the advantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction in different situations. • Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. • a. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. • b. Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals). 2

  3. Unit Goals(as they relate to plants) • Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. • e. Relate plant adaptations, including tropisms, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions. • Students will evaluate the role of natural selection in the development of the theory of evolution. d. Relate natural selection to changes in organisms. 3

  4. b. Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals). Kingdom Plantae Characteristics Plants • are multicellular. • are eukaryotes. • are autotrophic. • photosynthesize. • have cellulose cell walls. • can reproduce sexually & asexually have tissues that have been organized into organs and organ systems. Organisms are grouped into kingdoms based on genetic and anatomic similarities. 4

  5. d. Relate natural selection to changes in organisms. Brief History of Plants Green algae are believed to be the ancestors of modern plants The invasion of land by plants probably occurred about 450 million years ago First land plants were small mosses and ferns that had to live near water. Plants slowly began to adapt to life on land, and spread to all biomes and climates. -----Adapting to different environment. We are going to look at adaptation that plant have to help them survive in different environments. 5

  6. Minerals Sunlight What plants need to live Gas Exchange Water For Photosynthesis 6

  7. What plants need & how they obtain it. Overview • Plants are called autotrophs, meaning “self-feeding.” • They make Glucose (a carbohydrate) from sunlight energy. • Need: • Energy • Carbon Dioxide • Water • Other minerals 7

  8. 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy from sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Intake of Energy. Energy is needed by all organisms to carry out processes 8

  9. 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy from sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Photosynthesis • Plants are Autotrophs • This trapped energy is used to convert the inorganic raw materials CO2 and H2O to carbohydrates and O2. • The key to this process is the pigment chlorophyll. 9

  10. Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis and cell reproduction. • b. Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals). Chloroplasts Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts 11.1

  11. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. How is energy cycled through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration? • Autotrophs store energy in glucose. • Heterotrophs eat autotrophs, and use the glucose for energy to carry out all of life's processes. Sunlight energy Autotrophs (photosynthesis) Heterotrophs (Respiration) Flow of energy in the environment. 11.2

  12. 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy from sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Intake of Carbon Dioxide 12

  13. Leaves • CO2 enters through the pores in the leaves called stomata. • Adaptation: • Some leaves have a waxy coating to prevent water loss. • Bark on stems helps to insulate the tissues. Stomata 13

  14. 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy from sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6O2 • d. Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion). Uptake and Movement of water 14

  15. Water diffuses into the roots. -Osmosis High to low H2O H2O H2O 15

  16. 22 Transpiration Evaporation of water from the leaves • Adaptations: • Close stomata during the hottest part of the day to prevent water loss.

  17. 23 • e. Relate plant adaptations, including tropisms, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions. Water Storage • Cacti have modified stems and leaves for storing water. • Helps them to survive dry conditions.

  18. 22 27 Food Storage e. Relate plant adaptations to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions Roots & stems aremodified in many plants into storage organs in order to survive through winter underground. Tulips, daffodils, potatoes, carrots, onions, garlic.

  19. e. Compare the advantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction in different situations. • e. Relate plant adaptations, including tropisms, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions. Reproduction Sexual vs. Asexual -Sexual allows for the mixing of genes- increasing genetic variation -Asexualallows for reproduction when there is no other option- NO increase in genetic variation 28

  20. Sexual Reproductionallows for the mixing of genes- increasing genetic variation Sperm fuses with an egg • Some plants have flowers. • Animal pollination • Some plants have cones. • Wind pollinated • Some have neither. (Ferns & mosses). • Must live near water. Sperm must swim to egg. 29

  21. Not all plants have flowers • Seeds produced in cones Sexual reproduction 30

  22. Flowers are unique reproductive organs that produce seeds surrounded by a fruit. Flowers attract pollinators. Helps insure pollination Female Male Pollination-transfer of pollen Pollen = Sperm 31

  23. Seeds are produced after pollination & fertilization. -A seed is the “baby” plant. • Seeds provide a small food supply • Protects • Aids in dispersal the sprouting of a seed is called germination. 32

  24. Adaptations/ Advantages Seeds can tolerate unfavorable conditions by becoming dormant. When conditions become favorable, the seed sprouts into a new plant. 33

  25. Seeds can be dispersed by wind, water and animals. 34

  26. Not all plants have seeds. Some produce: Spores-specialized structures that can grow directly into a new plant 35

  27. Many flowers that depend on insects for pollination are brightly colored and fragrant, to draw attention to them Seeds, pollen, flowers, & fruit are adaptations that allow some plants to survive in a wide variety of environments. • Flowers can be pollinated in a number of ways, by the wind, insects, birds, & animals, even bats. 36

  28. 37 • e. Relate plant adaptations, including tropisms, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions. Tropisms Tropism— a plant’s response to their environment 1- Gravitropism (Geotropism)—a plant’s response to gravity 2- Phototropism— a plant’s response to light 3- Thigmotropism— a plant’s response to touch Characteristic of living things: -Plants can respond to their environment Cool Fact: Oldest living trees: Bristle Cone pines

  29. Geotropism/Gravitropism • the response of seedlings to the force of gravity. • important when seeds are sprouting. 38.1

  30. causes the roots to grow downward and the stems to grow upward, no matter what the position of the seed may be when it is planted. Geotropism/Gravitropism 38.2

  31. Phototropism tropism Clips • The ability of the plant to respond to light. • If a plant is placed near a window or another light source, the plant will grow in the direction of the light source. • A phototropic response can happen so quickly that even a seedling will respond within a few hours. 39

  32. Phototropism

  33. 40 tropism Clips Thigmotropism • The response of a plant to touch. • Climbing plants, ivy, and vines use thigmotropism in order to find their way up or around a solid object for support.

  34. 46 Can plants defend themselves? • Mechanical defense -incorporated into the physical structure of the organism. • thorns, spines and stiff hairs that repel a predator. • Chemical defense - occurs when the plant produces stinging sensations, paralysis, poisoning, or just a bad taste. • Chemical compounds that taste bad, while others contain sap that is an irritant or poison • Camouflage • the organism blends into its environment or appear to be something they are not

  35. 47 Plant Adaptations Review

  36. Plant Adaptations- A Review • Seeds go dormant • Modified roots and stems are places for storage • Ex: Cacti, potatoes, carrots • Dropping of leaves in winter. • Waxy coating on leaves (Cuticle- made of Cutin-Lipid) • Bark on trees- helping to insulate the tissues inside • The branches of the conifers are flexible, allowing for them to bend instead of break under the weight of ice and snow. 49

  37. Plant Adaptations- A Review • Pollinated in a number of ways: wind, insects, birds, animals. • Maple trees produce seeds that are shaped like a wing. They have the nickname of “helicopters.” • carried over long distances by the wind. • Some plants produce seeds that have hooks or barbs on them that attach to the fur of passing animals. These have the nickname of “hitchhikers.” • Many flowers that depend on insects for pollination are brightly colored and fragrant, to draw attention to them. • Pollen will rub off on the insect and they will carry it to another flower. The coconuts from palm trees float. They will travel from one beach to the next or even from one island to another. 50

  38. EOCT Questions 80

  39. 81 One main difference between members of the Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia is the ability to A obtain energy B reproduce C move D exchange gases

  40. 84 What characteristics of some pine trees allows the species to survive disasters? A modified leaves form needle bundles B seeds that germinate after fires C pollen that is easily carried by wind D bark that is lightly colored

  41. 85 Plants that live in the rainforest have many adaptations to their environment. Some plants such as vines have adaptations which allow them to attach themselves to the trunks of trees. These adaptations allow vines to successfully compete for which of the following limiting resources in the rainforest? A sunlight B water C carbon dioxide D oxygen