Kingdom Plantae - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kingdom Plantae

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  1. Kingdom Plantae

  2. Some Basics... • First appeared 500 million years ago • Multi-cellular • Eukaryotic • Autotrophs – make their own food  because they are photosynthetic (contain chlorophyll) • Believed to have evolved from green algae • Cellulose – type of a sugar molecule that makes up plant cell wall and allows plants to grow tall

  3. Plant Evolution

  4. Divided into Two Groups: 1. Vascular Plants  Have internal vascular system for transporting water and dissolved particles  Include: Tracheophytes (ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms 2. Non-Vascular Plants DO NOT have internal vascular system for transporting water and dissolved particles  Include: Bryophytes (mosses)

  5. Plant Phylogeny

  6. Non-Vascular Plants aka - Bryophytes

  7. Bryophytes • Non-vascular plants • Lack roots, stems and leaves • Usually grow in short, dense mats in moist environments • Example: peat moss

  8. Bryophyte Reproduction • 1. Asexual - Vegetative Reproduction • Small part of plant breaks off and grows into a new one • 2. Sexual • Sperm have to swim from male reproductive organ to female reproductive organ • This process produces spores that are dispersed via wind, water and animals.

  9. Vascular Plants aka - Tracheophytes (ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms)

  10. Vascular Plants - Tracheophytes • Include most modern plants • First appeared 360 million years ago • Have vascular tissues for transporting materials throughout plant • Consist of: xylem and phloem • Can grow much taller than bryophytes • Two types: • A. spore producing • B. seed producing

  11. A. Spore-Producing Plants • Smallest and most primitive of tracheophytes • Found mostly in moist/wet environments • Include: Ferns • Reproduce sexually, with sperm requiring water to swim to female reproductive organs • Similar reproduction to bryophytes

  12. B. Seed-Producing Plants • Most successful plants on Earth • Highly specialized organs allow for adaptation to diverse environments (like: leaves, stems, roots) • Include two types of plants: • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms • Sexual reproduction occurs by pollination • Doesn’t require water to transfer pollen

  13. Ginkgos i. Gymnosperms • Seeds are enclosed in cones • Include: conifers (i.e. Pine tree)

  14. ii. Angiosperms • All flowering plants • Reproduce sexually by pollination • Can self-pollinate or cross-pollinate using animals, wind, etc. • Two types: monocots and dicots

  15. Importance of Plants • Provide oxygen and food • Provide wood • Moss - harvested for fuel and can be used as a soil additive • Fossilized remains of gymnosperms form coal deposits • Ginkgo biloba extract (gymnosperm) – can improve circulation - especially to the brain! • Cure for many diseases:  Rosy periwinkle – used for chemotherapy in cancer patients