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Kingdom Plantae

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  1. Kingdom Plantae Plants!

  2. Plants • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Autotrophic (mostly) • Photosynthesis • Alternation of Generations • Sporic Life Cycle • Gametophyte • Sporophyte

  3. Plants Alternation of Generations:

  4. Plants

  5. NON-VASCULAR Plants • DIVISION: Bryophyta • Mosses, hornworts, liverworts • No true vascular tissue • Gametophyte Dominant • Sporophyte reduced (and tiny) -- dependent on the gametophyte. • Homosporous • Swimming sperm – water is needed! • No Seeds

  6. Bryophytes (Mosses) Gametophyte Dominant

  7. Bryophytes (Mosses)

  8. Bryophytes (Mosses)

  9. VASCULAR Plants • Vascular Tissue = specialized conducting tubes for transporting water/nutrients. • Strength • Allow for increases in size & complexity • Xylem – water & mineral transport • Phloem – “photosynthate” & nutrient transport

  10. SEEDLESS VASCULAR Plants • 4 DIVISIONS: • Psilophyta – whisk ferns • Lycophyta – club mosses • Sphenophyta -- horsetails • Pterophyta – ferns • Sporophyte Dominant • Gametophyte reduced -- dependent on the sporophyte. • Homosporous • Swimming sperm – water is needed! • No Seeds

  11. Pterophytes (Ferns)

  12. Pterophytes (Ferns)

  13. SEEDS • Seed = • Embryo + Food + Integuments • Allows for: • Protection • Dormancy • Dispersal • Nourishment • Germination

  14. SEED-PRODUCING VASCULAR Plants • Seeds! • Reduced Gametophytes • Gametophytes dependent on Sporophytes • Heterosporous • MicrosporesMicrogametophytes (pollen) • MegasporesMegagametophytes (ovules) • Allows for success in DRY environments: land! • Gymnosperms -- “Naked Seeds” • Angiosperms -- “Vessel Seeds”

  15. Gymnosperms

  16. Gymnosperms = naked seeds • 4 DIVISIONS: • Cycadophyta - cycads • Ginkgophyta - ginkgo • Gnetophyta - ephedra • Coniferophyta - conifers • Sporophyte Dominant • Gametophyte very reduced -- dependent on the sporophyte. • Heteroporous • Non-swimming sperm – water is not needed!

  17. Coniferophyta • “Conifers” • Pine, spruce, fir, larch, juniper, redwood, cypress, hemlock… • Often Evergreen • Leaves needle-like • Water retension • Cones • Ovulate cones • Staminate cones

  18. Coniferophyta Spring, 2006: Microspores pollen Megaspores Summer, 2007: pollen released, enters ♀ cones Fall, 2008: seeds shed Microspores

  19. Angiosperms = vessel seeds • 1 DIVISION: • Anthophyta – Flowering Plants! • Sporophyte Dominant • Gametophyte very reduced -- dependent on the sporophyte. • Heteroporous • Non-swimming sperm – water is not needed!

  20. Anthophyta • Flowering Plants (= fruiting plants!) • Daisy, Lily, Marigold, Oak, Maple, Grasses, Palms, Cattails… • Flowers: • Complete • Incomplete Pistil • Perfect • Imperfect (Either Staminate or Carpellate Flowers) Monoecious Dioecious

  21. Anthophyta

  22. Anthophyta • Fruit = Expanded ovary (surrounding the seeds) – the “vessel”. • (Many variations)

  23. Anthophyta • Often Deciduous (seasonal drop of leaves) • Variously-shaped leaves/roots/stems • 2 CLASSES: • Monocotyledonae (monocots) • Dicotyledonae (dicots)

  24. Monocotyledonae (Monocots) • 1 Cotyledon • Parallel Leaf Veination • Flower parts in 3’s & 6’s • Scattered vascular bundles in shoot. • Fibrous Root System

  25. Dicotyledonae (Dicots) • 2 Cotyledons • Netted Leaf Veination • Flower Parts in 4’s or 5’s • Ring of Vascular Bundles • Tap Root System

  26. Vascular Plant Form & Function

  27. Flowering Plant Body Plan

  28. Roots Growing Tip

  29. Shoots Phloem Xylem

  30. Leaves

  31. Plant Growth • Meristems • Primary Growth -- Length of shoots & roots. • Apical Meristems • Secondary Growth -- Girth of shoots & roots • Lateral Meristems (Vascular Cambium, Pericycle)