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KINGDOM PLANTAE

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  1. KINGDOM PLANTAE BIOLOGY 102Y

  2. KINGDOM PLANTAE CHARACTERISTICS • Eukaryotic • Autotrophic • Multicellular • Cell walls made of cellulose • EX: ferns, mosses, flowering plants, pine trees • Non-examples: algae!

  3. Plant Classification • Non-vascular • No vascular tissue (xylem & phloem) • Reproduce with spores instead of seeds • Need water to get sperm to egg • Reproduction: Alternation of generations • Live in moist, shady environments • No roots, stems, leaves • Ex: bryophytes (moss), liverworts • Vascular • Have vascular tissue (xylem & phloem) • Can be seeded or seedless

  4. Plant Classification • Seedless vascular plants • Have xylem & phloem • Reproduce using spores instead of seeds • Need water for sperm to swim to egg • Reproduction: Alternation of Generations • Live in moist, shady areas • Ex: pterophytes(ferns) • Seeded vascular plants • Have xylem & phloem • Reproduce using seeds • Can be gymnosperm or angiosperm Fiddlehead- young fern leaf

  5. Plant Classification • Gymnosperm • Non-flowering vascular plant • Produces seeds in CONES not flowers. • AKA: Conifer- cone producing • AKA: Evergreen- keep leaves all year • Adaptations: thick, waxy needle-like leaf; shallow roots, triangle shape tree • Female cone produces seeds • Male cone produces pollen • Ex: pine trees, spruce, fir, ginko • Angiosperm • Flowering vascular plants • Produce seeds in FLOWERS instead of cones. • Can be monocot or dicot

  6. Plant Classification • Monocot • Have one cotyledon: food storage organ of plant embryo • Parallel veins in leaves • Vascular bundles in stem are scattered • Flower parts in multiples of 3’s. • Fibrous roots • Examples – corn, grass, daffodils • Dicot • Have 2 cotyledons • Netlike veins • Vascular bundles are arranged in a circle • Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5. • Taproots • Examples: oak, holly, elm, carrots

  7. PLANT ANATOMY

  8. Plant Anatomy • ROOTS • Anchor plant in ground • Absorb water & nutrients • Sometimes store food for the plant (potatoes or carrots) • Types: • Fibrous- long hair like fibers (grass) • Tap- one thick main root (carrot) • Adventitious- roots grow from stem or other plant part (strawberry plant)

  9. Plant Anatomy • STEMS • Support growth above ground • Contain Xylem & Phloem (vascular bundle) • Xylem carries water up to leaves • Phloem carries sugar down to roots • Types • Tubers- enlarged stem underground (potato) • Bulbs- enlarged stem underground that can be divided into smaller bulbs (garlic, onions)

  10. Plant Anatomy • LEAVES • Site of photosynthesis • CO2 + H2O + light= C6 H12 O6 + O2 • Types: • Simple- one leaf blade • Compound- several leaf blades attached to same stem • Tendrils- used for climbing (vines) • Spines/Needles- small surface area to reduce water loss in desert or cold climate (taiga) • Pitcher shape/Venus fly trap- captures bugs to get nitrogen so they can make amino acids and proteins • Thick- thick & fleshy to store water

  11. Leaf Shapes & Margins(may be used in dichotomous key)

  12. Leaf Anatomy • Waxy cuticle- made of lipids, prevents water loss, protection • Epidermis- upper & lower surface for protection (like skin) • Palisade layer- oval shaped cells on upper surface; site of most photosynthesis • Spongy layer- has many canals to allow O2 & CO2 to circulate • Vascular bundle- holds xylem (water pipe) and phloem (glucose pipe) • Xylem carries water to leaf for photosynthesis • Phloem carries glucose made by photosynthesis to other parts of plant. • Stomata- openings in leaf that let O2 & CO2 in and out • Guard cells- control opening/closing of stomata. (filled w/water they open stomata)

  13. Review of Photosynthesis • CO2 is brought in thru stomata, water is brought in from roots- meet at chloroplast in palisade layer of leaf • Sunlight splits water into hydrogen, oxygen, and electrons • Several hydrogens, oxygens, and CO2 combine to form glucose C6H12O6 which is linked together and stored as starch in plants & used for energy • Some of the oxygen is released as gas thru stomata

  14. Plant Anatomy • FLOWERS • Used in sexual reproduction • Reproductive organ of plant • Types: • Complete- have all parts (see next slide) • Incomplete- missing 1 or more parts • Perfect- have both male & female parts • Imperfect- either male or female • Some flowers are colorful or smell good to attract pollinators • Those that are not colorful, showy, or smelly may use wind as a pollinator. Wind pollinated flower

  15. Flower Anatomy • Petals- colored part attracts pollinator • Sepals- surround & protect petals before blooming • Pedicel- where flower attaches to stem. • Pistil- female parts • Stigma- sticky to catch pollen • Style- tube connecting stigma to ovary • Ovary- holds ovules (potential seeds); becomes fruit • Ovules- will become seeds if fertilized • Stamen- male parts • Anther- makes & stores pollen • Filament- connects anther to flower; pushes pollen close to sticky stigma (self fertilization) or pollinators

  16. Plant Anatomy • SEEDS • Produced after pollination • Become newborn plant • Types: (method of dispersal) • Inside fruit- attracts animals to eat & poop out seeds elsewhere • Hitchhikers- attach to fur or clothing for dispersal • Wind- able to float in air • Water- able to float in water • Seeds need to be dispersed so they don’t compete with parent plant for water, nutrients, sunlight • Seeds are good adaptations for land plants b/c • Retain moisture • Protect from injury or environment (cold)

  17. Seed Anatomy • Seed coat- protects seed from dehydration and weather • Cotyledon/endosperm- internal starch storage (food source b/c it doesn’t have leaves yet for photosynthesis) • Radicle- becomes first root • Hypocotyl- becomes first stem • Epicotyl- becomes first leaf

  18. Plant Anatomy • FRUITS • The ripened ovary of plant containing seeds • Protect seeds • Attracts animals for seed dispersal • Anything that contains seeds is a fruit- yes, even tomatoes & bell peppers! • Types: • Dry- bean pod • Fleshy- juicy like peach, apple

  19. REPRODUCTION

  20. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN MOST PLANTS • Self-pollination: pollen fertilizes ovules of its own flower. • Cross-pollination: pollen fertilizes ovules of a different flower on separate plant • Pollen holds “sperm” • Pollen creates pollen tube that “eats” its way thru style to ovary • Plant sperm can travel down tube to ovary to fertilize ovules and make seeds. • Flower petals fall off, ovary thickens & fills with sugars and becomes fruit (not all plants make fruits- some just release seeds)

  21. Alternation of Generations • Plant alternates between a sexual and asexual stage of life • Gametophyte (haploid)-makes sperm or egg that join to make sporophyte • Sporophyte (diploid)-makes spores that become gametophytes • EX: mosses, ferns

  22. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN MOST PLANTS • Vegetative propagation • New plants form from roots, stems, or leaves • Natural process for many species • Ex: runners, rhizomes, bulbs • Artificial propagation • Grafting • Cut one plant and attach to another • Cuttings • Cut plant and sprout roots from stem • Tissue culture • Grow plant tissues in culture dish in laboratory • Like cloning

  23. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES

  24. How are plants influenced by the environment? • Photoperiodism • Respond to changes in light • Ex: morning glories bloom in morning, some desert flowers bloom at night to attract bats, deciduous trees drop leaves when days become shorter (less light) • Moisture • Xerophytes- can survive in dry conditions (cactus) • Hydrophytes- can survive in wet conditions (water lilies)

  25. How are plants influenced by the environment Phototropism • Tropisms- how plants move toward (positive) or away (negative) from a stimulus • Phototropism • light • Gravitropism • gravity • Thigmotropism • Touching a structure • Hydrotropism • water Thigmotropism Hydrotropism Gravitropism

  26. How are plants adapted to their environments? • Tundra (cold & dry) • Small- get radiant heat that bounces off ground • May have wooly covering to conserve heat • Fast growing/reproducing (shorter summers so have to reproduce quickly) • Taiga (cold & dry) • Needles have waxy coating to conserve water in winter • Thick bark to conserve heat • Desert (hot & dry) • Succulents- store water in stem or leaves • Spines- deter herbivores from eating them & reduce surface area to reduce transpiration (water loss from leaf) • Deciduous forest (cool, dry winters) • Drop leaves to prevent water loss • Rainforest (shady under canopy) • Large broad leaves to catch sunlight that filters thru canopy • Drip tips to prevent excess water & mold • Grassland (sunny, fire prone) • Roots create a mat under soil & go on for miles, regenerate quickly after fire • Some trees need heat from fire to open up seed cones

  27. INTERNAL INFLUENCES

  28. How are plant behaviors controlled internally? • Hormones- send messages thru plant to illicit responses • Gibberelins- stimulate growth in stem (pushes flowers up in air to attract pollinators) • Auxins- controls when leaf & fruit fall off tree • Component of Agent Orange- made leaves fall off trees so enemy easier to see. • Ethylene gas- controls ripening of fruit & flowers • “one bad apple spoils the bunch” • Fruit farmers use ethylene blankets to absorb ethylene to keep fruit from spoiling on way to store