Kingdom Plantae - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kingdom Plantae

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  1. Kingdom Plantae • Arose from Green Algae approximately 1 billion years ago • Red and brown algae are not included • A single species of freshwater green algae gave rise to the entire Kingdom • Green algae subsequently split into two groups – the Chlorophytes which never made it to land, and the Charophytes, the sister group of all land plants

  2. Kingdom Plantae is monophyletic

  3. Kingdom Plantae • Eukaryotic • Multi-cellular • Cell walls are made of cellulose • Autotrophic

  4. Kingdom Plantae • Adaptations for living on land • Waxy cuticle – secreted onto surface; impermeable • Stomata – tiny mouth-shaped openings, which can be opened and closed • Gametangia – structures that produce (and house) gametes

  5. Plant Life Cycles • Reproduction is accomplished by an alteration of generations • A multi-cellular diploid phase alternates with a multi-cellular haploid phase • The gametophyte (“gamete plant”) is haploid; produces gametes by mitosis • The sporophyte (“spore plant”)is diploid; formed by two gametes; produces spores by meiosis, which germinate and develop into gametophytes!

  6. Plant Life Cycles • The diploid sporophyte is the dominant portion of the life cycle in most land plants (vascular plants: ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms) • However, the haploid gametophyte is the dominant portion of the life cycle in Bryophytes (liverworts, hornworts and mosses)

  7. Plant Life Cycles • Bryophyte gametophyte • Vascular plant sporophyte (sori on the back of a fern)

  8. Plant Life Cycles • In seed plants, the haploid gametophytes are male and female; the males occur as pollen and the females occur as seeds • The seed growing on the diploid sporophyte ‘parent’ contains a haploid female gametophyte bearing an egg cell, and is fertilized by a pollen grain which contains a miniature male gametophyte • diploid zygote diploid sporophyte

  9. Plant Life Cycles • Pine cones contain seeds and pollen • The familiar pine cone is the female • The male (containing pollen) is not really a cone at all, but rather a cluster

  10. Chlorophytes • Green Algae • Aquatic • Unicellular and multi-cellular

  11. Bryophytes • The closest living descendents of the first land plants • Simple, but highly adapted • Lack roots • Mycorrhizal associations are found in many groups • Typically small (the conspicuous form are gametophytes!); <7cm in height • Non-vascular but have conducting cells for water and nutrients

  12. Bryophytes • Liverworts and Hornworts

  13. Bryophytes • Mosses • Multi-cellular rhizoids • Rhizoids function as roots; anchor to substrate and absorb water • Green parent plant is the gametophyte; sporophyte nutritionally dependent on gametophyte

  14. Tracheophytes • The first vascular plants • Evolved lignified tissues for conducting water, nutrients and photosynthetic products through the plant • Xylem – draws water and nutrients up from roots to the upper sections of the plant • Phloem – conducts photosynthetic products and hormones throughout plant • “Xylem up, Phloem down!”

  15. You are Here

  16. Tracheophytes

  17. Tracheophytes (cont.)

  18. Lycophytes and Pterophytes • The Club Mosses (Lycophytes; not true mosses) and Ferns (Pterophytes)

  19. Seed Plants • Seeded plants • Embryo protected by an extra layer of sporophytic tissue; during development, this tissue hardens to produce the seed coat • Seed protects embryo from drought, allows for easier dispersal, and introduces a dormant stage, that allows the embryo to survive until environmental conditions are favorable for growth

  20. Seed dispersal

  21. Gymnosperms • Plants with “naked seeds”

  22. Gymnosperms • Gametophyte stage is further reduced • Male gametophyte is inside pollen • Female gametophyte inside seed…

  23. Reminder – conifers are gymnosperms • Pine cones contain seeds and pollen • The familiar pine cone is the female • The male (containing pollen) is not really a cone at all, but rather a cluster

  24. Angiosperms • Flowering Plants • Include Monocots (one cotyledon) and Dicots (two cotyledon)

  25. Angiosperms • Flowers – reproductive organs; considered to be modified stems with modified leaves • Consist of: • Stamen - produces pollen, bears pollen on anther • Carpel – includes the ovary (the swollen base), stigma (sticky, pollen grains adhere to), style (connects the stigma to the ovary) • Ovary later develops into a fruit

  26. Angiosperms

  27. Angiosperms • The flower is designed (evolved) to attract pollinators (or to aid in wind dispersal) • The flower uses color, scent, morphology and reward to attract pollinators • Color – advertises to pollinators • Scent – attracts pollinators • Morphology – can be specific, attracts pollinators (hummingbird bills, bee orchids) • Reward – nectar; sweet and nutritious • Flowers that self-fertilize tend to small, inconspicuous and unscented!


  29. Coevolution