Age of Jefferson Change for the new country.
Federalists Strong, central gov’t. Rule by the “best people.” Distrusted total democracy. Pro-British. Support private enterprise. Democratic-Republicans Middle-class and underprivileged. Power to the states. National debt was a curse. Rule of the people. (literate.) No spec. privileges. Differences in Party
Election of 1800 • Jefferson defeats Adams, but …… • Jefferson and Burr tie in electoral votes. • House of Representatives decides the tie. • (1804) the 12th Amendment cures this problem. Revolution of 1800. • “A triumph of the common citizen over the aristocratic classes.”
Reversal of Federalist policies • Secured Congressional repeal of the excise tax on whiskey. • Cut back on military budget and reduced the national debt. (Albert Galatin) • Secured repeal of the Naturalization Act. • Permitted the Alien and Sedition Act to expire and pardoned those affected by it.
Continues some Federalist policies. “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” • Continued Hamilton’s financial programs. • Reaffirmed Washington’s policy of isolation. • Showed that a change of regime not need be drastic and overwhelming change.
“Midnight Judges” • John Marshall becomes Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. • Attempt by Adams to pack the courts with Judges who were sympathetic to Federalist views. • Marbury v. Madison
Barbary States. “Millions for defense,but not one cent for Tribute.” Military recognition. “to the shores of Tripoli.”
Louisiana Purchase • Transportation of goods west of the Appalachians. • 1n 1800, Napoleon secretly secures the territory from Spain. • Robert Livingston and James Monroe negotiate. • England or France Jefferson wonders? • A small price to pay. $15 million.
Why does Napoleon sell? • Problems in the Caribbean. No need for a granary. • $$$ for his war effort. • British naval sea power. • Later payback.
A Constitutional Problem • Constitution didn’t specify that the President could negotiate treaties for incorporating new land into the country.. • No time for an amendment. • Loose constuctionalist v. strict constructionalist?
Hamilton and Burr Aaron Burr • Vice-President of the United States. • Grandson of Jonathan Edwards. His downfall. • Politics and the duel. • July 11, 1804. • Treason.
Embargo Act of 1807 • American ships could not sail to foreign ports and prohibited American exports to all foreign countries. • Reaction to the war with England and France. • Attempt at neutrality. • Dismal failure. Why? • Non-Intercourse Act of 1809.