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AP World Review

AP World Review

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AP World Review

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  1. AP World Review

  2. Six Themes • The impact of interaction among major societies, such as, trade, international exchange, war, and diplomacy. • The relationship of change and continuity across the periods of World History. • Impact of technology and demography on people and the environment, including population change, manufacturing, agriculture, etc. • Systems of organization and gender structure. • Cultural and intellectual development and interactions among societies. • Change over time in function and structures of political states.

  3. Building Blocks of Civilization • What is a civilization? • Economic system • Political organization • Moral code (religion) • Written language and intellectual tradition.

  4. Early Man • Beginnings of Humans • Hominids: 3 to 4 million years on earth. • Hominids are primates. • Earliest hominids called Australopithecine. • Bipeds • Other types of Early man include Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, and Homo Sapien

  5. Stone Age • Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age). • Tools were used. • Simple huts. • Fire. • Hunter/gatherer societies. • Family or clan groupings. • Art and music also practiced.

  6. Stone Age (Con’t) • Agricultural Revolution: Neolithic Revolution • Occurred around the end of the Great Ice Age. • Rapid population growth. • Need for a change in food supply. • New skills needed. • Pastoralism and agriculture • begins with domestication of plants and animals.

  7. Results of the Agricultural Revolution • Many diversified crops developed. • Development of communities and villages. • Not based on family ties. • Lead to the formation of cities. • Early religions form around harvest and planting seasons. • Specialization of Labor. • Improved tools. • Development of social classes.

  8. River Valley Civilizations • Mesopotamia. • Tigris and Euphrates River valleys. • Fertile Crescent. • Written Language: Cuneiform. • Epic of Gilgamesh. • Hammurabi’s Code.

  9. River Civilizations • Egypt • Nile River valley: Upper and Lower Egypt • Inundation: regular flooding schedule • Monarchy: Pharaoh & small class of priests. • Duality: Complex religion and mummification. • Many great inventions and advances.

  10. River Civilizations • Indus Valley • Indus and Ganges Rivers • Reason for decline unknown. • Highly unified and organized government. • Artistic.

  11. River Civilizations • Yellow River valley. • Shang – China’s first dynasty. • Monarchy • Bronze work, silk making, pottery, jade. • Zhou Dynasty: Many advances • Mandate of Heaven.

  12. Middle East Civilizations • Persians • Created one of the largest empires in world history: From Turkey to Libya. • Cyrus the Great-first king, Darius the Great • Advanced postal system, roads, single currency, and decentralized government. • Zoroastrianism: Primary religion. • Fell to Alexander the Great.

  13. Middle East Civilizations • Phoenicians • Syria and Lebanon. • Advanced export economy. • Skilled traders. • Established Cathage. • First alphabet.

  14. Ancient Greece • Aegean, Minoan, Mycenaean Civilizations. • Trading societies. • Conquest (Trojan War) • Joined into a single culture called Hellenes or Greeks.

  15. Ancient Greece • Athens and Sparta • Athens: educated, great thinkers • Sparta: warrior society, military strength, self reliance. • Beginnings of Democracy • Began in Athens • Pericles • Not fully enfranchised. • Most representative government in ancient world.

  16. Ancient Greece • Peloponnesian War • Conflict between Athens and Sparta. • Left Greek city-states weak. • Open to conquest by the Persians and then Macedonians (Alexander the Great). • Alexander the Great • Great conqueror, took over Asia, Persian Empire, territory to borders of India. • Spread Greek culture throughout Eurasia.

  17. Ancient Greece • Hellenic Culture • Science was important, geometry, physics, mathematics, and astronomy. • Poetry (Homer), Drama (Sophocles/Euripides), Philosophy (Socrates, Plato)

  18. Ancient Rome • Roman Republic • Tensions between Plebeians (lower class) and Patricians (upper class). • Beginning of Roman expansion. • Punic Wars • Three campaigns against Carthage. • Rome was victorious. • Began expanding to the East (Greece, Balkans).

  19. Ancient Rome • Collapse of Roman Republic • Too much expansion. • Social problems and civil wars. • Unification of leadership under one person. • Roman Empire • Julius Caesar, Octavian (Caesar Augustus)

  20. Han Dynasty • Strongest Chinese dynasty. • Expansionist Empire • Postal system. • Roads. • Defensive fortifications (Great Wall). • Weak leadership caused collapse • Corruption and leadership issues.

  21. India • Aryans • Nomadic group invaded India. • Earliest Europeans. • Conquered the Dravidians (Dark skinned Indians). • Established warrior aristocracy. • Established Sanskrit. • Vedic and early Hindu faith.

  22. India • Caste System • Priests (Brahmins) • Warriors and political rulers (Kshatruyas). • Commoners. • Servants and Peasants. • The “Untouchables.” • Born into caste. Cannot be changed.

  23. India • Mauryan Empire • Ashoka – 1st emperor. • Converted to Buddhism. • Collapsed from outside attacks. • Gupta Empire • Religious tolerance. • Muslim invaders.

  24. Religions • Judaism • Hebrews • Monotheistic • Main deity - Yahweh • Covenant • Islam • Founded by Muhammad • Five Pillars of Faith. • Allah

  25. Religions • Christianity • Messiah: Jesus • Evangelical. • Hinduism • Bramin, Multiple gods, Darma, Karma. • Multiple Reincarnations.

  26. Religions • Buddhism • Four Noble Truths • Eightfold Path • Daosim (Taoism) • The Way • Harmony with nature.

  27. Caliphates • Split in Islamic believers after the death of Muhammad. • Sunni and Shiite • “Caliph” – Leader of the Islamic faith. • Umayyad Caliphate • Abbasid Caliphate • Golden Age of Islamic Culture

  28. Amerindian Civilizations • Olmec • Mother civilization for Central America. • Maya • Teotihuacan • Located in Mexico and Central America. • Religion included human sacrifice. • Ended by constant state of war.

  29. Amerindian Civilizations • Inca • Located along the Andes Mountains of Peru. • Specially adapted to high mountain altitudes. • Domesticated llamas. • Aztec • Tribute System.

  30. Forms of Government • Oligarchy • Rule by a small group of elite families. • Monarch • Leadership by one person passed through family. • Absolute and Constitutional Monarchy. • Republic • Citizens all participate in government. • Democracy • All citizens play the same role in government • Theocracy • Ruled by church or priests (No separation)

  31. Middle Ages • Collapse of Roman Empire led to fragmented leadership in Europe and the rise of the Byzantine Empire • Emperor Justinian. • Constantinople. • Feudalism • Manor System • Self-sufficient. • Serfdom

  32. Middle Ages • Great Schism • Catholic Church gains much power. • Split between “Western” Church and Byzantine Church. • Monasticism • Monastery orders dedicated to the service of God. • Vows of Chastity and Poverty.

  33. European Relationships • One Hundred Years’ War • England and France • Caused political entanglements. • France’s attempt to regain English territory. • Trade competition. • Holy Roman Empire • Spain and Portugal • Muslim invasion • Reconquesta

  34. Crusades • Causes • Religious fervor. • European desire for trade. • Personal Ambitions. • First Crusade • Byzantine empire asked for help against Muslim Turks. • Christians capture Jerusalem.

  35. Crusades • More crusades - none successful. • Effects of the Crusades • More awareness of the world as a whole. • Increased tensions between Muslims and Christians. • Increased trade.

  36. Black Death • Bubonic Plague • Traveled from Asia over Silk Road. • Carried by fleas on rats. • Killed 1/3 of European Population. • Caused society to modernize and gave more rights to the poor.

  37. Renaissance • Printing Press • Johannes Gutenberg • Classicism • Greater understanding and appreciation of Greek and Roman culture. • Important people • Da Vinci • Michelangelo • Titan

  38. Protestant Reformation • Failed attempts at Catholic Church reforms. • Martin Luther • Protested indulgences. • Formed Lutheran Church. • John Calvin • Predestination.

  39. Protestant Reformation • Anglican Church (Church of England) • Formed for political reasons against Pope’s authority. • Catholic Counter Reformation • Council of Trent • Inquisition.

  40. Islamic World • Berber States • Nomads • First to convert to Islam Mali. • Mansa Musa – Mali • Very Rich • Muslim that traveled throughout Africa and Middle East.

  41. Islamic World • Songhai • Askia Mohammed. • Islamic Achievements • Arabic Numerals • Algebra/Trig • Delhi Sultanate • Introduced Islam to India.

  42. Mongol Expansion • Khanates • Genghis • Khubilai • Conquest of China “Yuan Dynasty” • Mongol Advances • Stirrups • Advanced horse warfare • Inclusion of conquered peoples • Golden Horde and Il”Khan • Conflict over religion.

  43. Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires • Ottoman Empire • Major leader – Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. • Took over Constantinople • Long decline 1450-1920’s • Safavid Empire • Persia • Shiite Muslims

  44. Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires • Mughal Empire • India • Hindu majority ruled by Muslim minority. • All three “Gunpowder Empires”

  45. Absolutism • Absolute monarchies • Nation states emerge from feudal societies. • Common languages develop. • National identity. • Strong, unlimited power of monarch. • Rulers • Louis XIV, Habsburg rulers, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, Ivan the Terrible, etc.

  46. Constitutionalism • Monarchy with limited power. • Parliamentary governments. • Formed Great Britain • English Civil War • Oliver Cromwell – Military dictator of England. • Restoration • William and Mary

  47. Scientific Revolution • Scientific Revolution • Accelerated pace of scientific discovery. • Modern thinking on scientific reason and logic. • Great thinkers of Scientific Revolution • Sir Isaac Newton • Galileo

  48. Enlightenment • Enlightenment • Emphasis on scientific method. • Faith in the power of human reason. • Criticism of the Church to some extent. • Great Thinkers of the Enlightenment • Voltaire • Rousseau • Locke

  49. Ming/Qing China • Reaction to Mongol Dynasty • Used Mongol foundations to build empire. • Naval forces • Voyages of Zheng He • Very artistic (Ming ware) • Qing (Manchu) Dynasty • Established by Manchu peoples. • Full scale European trade begins in China. • Last dynasty of China.

  50. Japanese Shogunate • Japanese feudalism • Shogun • Daimyo • Samurai • Bushido • Comparison of Japanese and European Feudalism = Japanese feudal system more centralized.