AP World Review The morning of May 17, 2007
Who takes the test • 21,000+ students took the test in 2002. • This was the most popular first-year exam in the AP Program's history. • 10% 5 • 17% 4 • 29% 3 • 25% 2 • 19% 1
Test Format • Exam last 3 Hours and 5 Minutes • 55 Minutes for 70 Multiple Choice Questions • Break • 50 Minutes for Document Based Question (10 minutes for Reading and Evaluating Documents) • 40 Minutes for Change Over Time Essay • 40 Minutes for Comparative Essay Question
Grading • 70 Multiple Choice Questions = 1/2 Score • Document Based Question = 16.66% of Score • Change Over Time Essay = 16.66% of Score • Comparative Essay = 16.66% of Score • Essays Graded on Scale of 0 to 9
What do the questions look like • The questions fall into 6 basic categories, which are as follows: • Identification (35-40% of the test) - simply test whether you know a fact, or facts. • Analytical (20-25% of the test) - makes you think about relationships, see connections, place in order. • Quotation Based (10% or less of the test) - match the quote with the appropriate person.
Image Interpretation (10% or less of the test) - determine images relevance, purpose, or meaning. • Map Based Questions (10% or less of the test) - identify what a map shows, or interpret it's purpose. • Graph & Chart Interpretation (10% or less of the test) - interpret answer from data given in chart form.
Six Themes 1. The impact of interaction among major societies. Such as Trade, International Exchange, War, and Diplomacy 2. The Relationship of Change and Continuity across the periods of World History 3. Impact of Technology and Demography on People and the Environment; Including Population change, Manufacturing, Agriculture, etc.
Six Themes 4. Systems of Organization and Gender Structure 5. Cultural and Intellectual Development and Interactions among Societies 6. Change over time in functions and structures of Political States
Time Frames • Prehistory to 600 C.E: 19-20% of Questions • 600 C.E-1450 C.E: 22 % of Questions • 1450 C.E- 1750 C.E: 19-20% of Questions • 1750 C.E- 1914 C.E: 19-20% of Questions • 1914-Present: 19-20% of Questions
Bookends of Foundation Period8000 BCE – 600 CE • 8000 BCE marks the Neolithic civilization and the development of four river valley civilizations • 600 CE marks the time which classical empires fall
Building Blocks of Civilization • What is a Civilization? • Economic System • Political Organization • Moral Code (Religion) • Written Language and Intellectual Tradition • Division of labor
PreHistory History • Presence of a written language • Writing is essential for record keeping, bureaucracy, commerce, and accumulating knowledge; • it makes possible more varied cultural forms. • Writing also led to new social divisions based on selective literacy. • Scribes • Scholarly gentry • Dark Age • Art of writing has developed and been lost
Environmental determinism • Relationship between culture of a civilization, success and stability • How does the culture react to the environment or environmental change • Technology • Movement of peoples into and out of the area • Crossroads vs. isolation
River Valley Civilizations • China • Yellow River valley • Shang China: first dynasty • Develop in isolation w/ minimal contact with India and Middle East
River Valley Civilizations • China • Became the subject of many legends in later Chinese history • Monarchy • Bronze work, silk making, pottery, jade, elaborate intellectual life, writing, interest in science and technology
Political structure tied to social order and culture by Confucianism • Confucianism emphasized order, hierarchy, and deference, including specific injunctions to obey the emperor. • Bureaucracy aimed to alleviate political instability, difficulties of centrally controlling outlying provinces, and related competition among landed aristocrats for power and influence.
Classical Civilizations and great empires Mesoamerican Andean Han Gupta
Change from River Valleys to Classical Civs • ~1000 BCE • Location—China, India, Mediterranean World • New/renewed civs that were durable • Left the most substantial impacts and legacies • Set in motion key values and institutions that extend well beyond the classical period • All 3 built on achievements of the River valley civs.
Classical civs not a continuation of ancient river valleys • Change political centers • Improve technology • Est. More elaborate philosophical and religious traditions • Expand science and math • Set up methods for territorial expansion and embraced a diverse group of people • Integrated aspects of their institutions and traditions • Each civ operated separately despite contacts with each other • Greece/India—Alexander the Great • Rome/China—Silk Road
Mesoamerica • The area from north central Mexico to Nicaragua • Beginning about 5,000 BCE, domesticated certain plants – beans, peppers, avocados, and squash. • Maize dominated the diet of these agricultural peoples • Later innovations such as pottery took place around 2000 BCE.
Mesoamerica • When Shang dynasty ruled in China, permanent sedentary villages based on some agriculture appeared. There were small, modest settlements without much hierarchy or social differentiation and a lack of craft specialization. • Numbers of villages rose proliferated and population densities rose.
Olmec • 1400 BCE to 500 BCE • Suddenly appeared • They had irrigated agriculture, impressive drainage systems, monumental sculpture, urbanism and beginnings of calendar and writing systems (carved inscriptions).
Olmec • Giant stone heads were found in ruins. No one knows how the 40-ton sculptures were moved from the quarries without wheeled vehicles or draft animals. All of these attest to a high degree of social organization and artistic skill. • Called the Mother Civilization of Mesoamerica
Olmec • They provided the basis of a state ruled by a hereditary elite in which the ceremonialism of a complex religious dominated life. • Powerful class of priests and aristocrats stood at top of society • Most important – tradition of priestly leadership and religious devotion that became a basic part of later Middle American civilization. • Did not build true cities – built ceremonial centers made of pyramid shaped temples and other buildings
Olmec • People came for nearby farming villages to work on the temples or attend religious ceremonies • Through trade, Olmec influence spread over a wide area • Great carvers of jade and traded or conquered to get it.
Olmec • Know one knows what happened to cause their decline – mystery. • Some scholars think they are ancestors to the great Maya civilizations that followed.
Andean World • From the coast to the Andes Mountains • Potatoes and maize grown; grazing for llamas and alpacas
Chavin • 850 BCE built a huge temple complex – stone carving and pottery show the Chavin people worshipped a god that was a part jaguar and part human with grinning catlike features • Artisans worked in ceramics, textiles, and gold characterized. • Used animals as decorations, often along scenes of war and violence.
Chavin • Some similarities with Olmecs (possible Amazonian lowland origin for both) • Warfare seems to indicate a general process – with the development of agriculture and a limited amount of arable land, it becomes necessary to organize irrigation and create political authority and eventually states that could mobilize to protect or expand the available land. • Influenced later peoples of Peru
Chavin • By 300 BCE Chavin in decline • Andean world became characterized by regional centers – without political unity but great art. • Wide variety of crops, domestication of the llama and related animals, dense populations, and hierarchal societies could be found in many places.
Nazca • Weavers • Great figures of various animals, which cover 100s of feet and can be seen only from the air • Also great straight lines or paths that cut across plains and seem to go towards mountains or celestial points – no one know why they were drawn
Mochica • Skilled farmers developing terracing, irrigation, and fertilization of the soil • Leaders built roads and organized networks of relay runners to carry messages • To build one temple – had to produce 130 million bricks • Textile, goldworking, woodcarving • Potters decorated with scenes of everyday life including battle, music, and textile produced on small looms.
Han Dynasty • Strongest and longest dynasty • Expansionist Empire • Postal system • Roads • Defensive fortifications • Weak Leadership caused collapse • Corruption and leadership issues • Had to protect the expanding borders some that encouraged trade along the silk road • Silk road brought “bandits” that threatened the outer borders of the Han dynasty
Han Decline • 100 CE • Nomadic tribes topple Han China • Central government control diminished and corrupt bureaucracy • Local landlords took up the slack by ruling their own neighborhoods • People heavily taxed • Increased social unrest
Han Decline • Daoist revolutionary effort 184 CE “Yellow Turbans” promised a golden age that would come via divine magic • 30,000 students demonstrated against decline of government morality • Failed BUT decline continued into civil war.
Factors of the Han Decline • Political ineffectiveness • Spread of devastating epidemic - killed ½ of population leading to three centuries of chaos