Topics for today • Events of the day/week • Kenyan parties agree on peace deal • Catching up with readings/PowerPoints • World War II • Cold War • Comparing The League and the United Nations • After the Cold War, 1991-
States, sovereignty, and power • What is a “state”? • What is “sovereignty”?
What is a state? • Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States (1933) • State: a legal entity in international law • with a permanent population • with a defined territory • with a government capable of effective domestic control and international representation/recognition
Authority and Territoriality • The authority of a state is limited by physical borders, not by associational or other criteria. • State authority is based on the claim to sovereignty, or the absence of any higher authority. • International law recognizes states both on the basis of legitimacy and violence. A viable state is capable of resisting outside/domestic attacks and elicit a minimum of international and domestic recognition.
What is sovereignty? • Sovereignty: No superior authority. • Control over domestic affairs • Control over cross-border movements • Exclusive representation in international politics
Sovereignty as control • Effective domestic monopoly of violence. • Government controls domestic affairs. • How do states loose control? • Voluntarily: enter treaties with other states or create inter- and supranational institutions (“pooling of sovereignty”). • Involuntarily: Military invasion, economic sanctions, diplomatic threats, smugglers, cross-border pollution.
UN membership expanded Recent new member states 2006 (192): Montenegro (192) 2002 (191): Switzerland, Timor-Leste . . 1992 (179): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, San Marino, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Summary: the state • A state is a legal entity with a defined territory, population, and government (monopoly of violence). • States are de jure sovereign: controlling borders (1), domestic autonomy (2), and international representation (3).
Summary: the state system • States and their supporting ideology of nationalism are a recent phenomenon in human history. • The state system emerged mostly by means of brutal internal and external violence. • States emerged in response to changes in military technology (economies of scale) as well as shifts from religious to political/ nationalist allegiances.
League of Nations • Principle of unanimity (Art. 5) • Council and Assembly have the same responsibilities and rights (Art. 2-4) • Peace at a collective good. • An attack against any member is an attack against all members. • RULES: arbitration and settlement • Economic sanctions as a new tool (Art. 16)
US absence Lack of enforcement Council and GA are equals No human rights promotion No participation of the Global South US presence Chapter VII Security Council has more powers Human rights an explicit goal of UN Decolonization expanded membership League of Nations and the United Nations
After the Cold War • Persian Gulf War (1991) • Failed states • Break-up of Yugoslavia (1991-1994) • Somalia (1993) • Rwandan genocide (1994) • Anti-landmines treaty (1997) • Middle East conflict (second intifada, 2001) • Global terrorism (9/11) • Iraq war (2003) • Expansion of the European Union to 27 members
Answering terrorism • Realism: a case of asymmetric warfare • Solution: military defeat and repression • Liberal Institutionalism: a criminal activity • Solution: Democracy/trade and intensified inter-state cooperation on law enforcement; transform Muslims through wealth into secularists • Identity/constructivism: a challenge to Western cultural imperialism • Solution: better integration of Muslim immigrants; appeals to moderate Muslims; creation of common cultural platforms; accept difference and promote cultural diversity