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Topics for Today

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  1. Topics for Today • Greenhouse Earth! • The Earth’s Energy Balance

  2. Readings for Today • 3.1 The Earth’s Energy Balance • 3.2 Gathering Evidence • 3.3 Molecules: How they Shape Up

  3. Topics for Wednesday • Greenhouse Gases: How do they keep us warm?

  4. Readings for Wednesday • 3.4 Vibrating Molecules and the Greenhouse Effect

  5. Announcements!!!

  6. HW 3 is due on Wednesday! Isomers…

  7. Bring back your radon disks!!

  8. Failed chemical experiments

  9. Are they good for anything?

  10. Back in Time • 1895 – Roentgen discovers x-rays. Accident #1!

  11. Back in Time • 1900 – Henri Becquerel discovers radiation Accident #2!

  12. Chemistry 108 discovers that liquid gasoline does NOT burn. WHAT?! Accident #3

  13. 1 mole C7H16 2650 g C7H16 7 mole CO2 8,162 g CO2! 44g CO2 = 100g C7H16 1 mole C7H16 1 mole H2O GRAMS HC MOLES HC MOLES CO2 GRAMS CO2 C7H16 + 11O2 8H2O + 7CO2

  14. Gasoline A volatilemixture of flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived chiefly from crude petroleum and used principally as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Review.

  15. Review. Gasoline A volatilemixture of flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived chiefly from crude petroleum and used principally as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. One caveat… What is “volatile?” Vapor Liquid A barrel

  16. Vapor Liquid Gasoline VAPOR is flammable. Gasoline LIQUID is NOT flammable. Lower Temperature = Less Vapor!

  17. DEMO!!!

  18. Gasoline A volatilemixture of flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived chiefly from crude petroleum and used principally as a fuel for internal-combustion engines.

  19. What else is gasoline?

  20. What else is gasoline? A fuel

  21. Polar or nonpolar? What else is gasoline? A fuel

  22. More or less dense than water? What else is gasoline? A fuel Nonpolar liquid

  23. What else is gasoline? A fuel Nonpolar liquid Less dense than water

  24. Density Density gasoline = 0.7 grams per mL

  25. Density Density water = 1.0 gram per mL

  26. What else is gasoline? How much gasoline do we use? A fuel Nonpolar liquid Less dense than water

  27. The US uses about 20,600,000 barrels of petroleum / day About 10 million barrels are used for gasoline

  28. 1 barrel = 42 gallons of crude oil How much CO2 does this produce? The US uses 42,000,000 gallons of gasoline every DAY.

  29. REVIEW Burn 1 gallon of gasoline… About 18 lbs of CO2 is emitted!

  30. Burn 42,000,000 gallons of gasoline… About 756,000,000 lbs of CO2 is emitted daily! And that is just from gasoline!

  31. SO WHAT??

  32. Fig.03.05 Figure 3.5 Chemistry in Context

  33. Fig.03.05 Figure 3.5 Chemistry in Context

  34. Why the sawtooth?

  35. Photosynthesis! visible light 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 glucose chlorophyll

  36. Do CO2 levels rise or fall during the fall?

  37. Do CO2 levels rise or fall during the fall?

  38. Do CO2 levels riseor fall during the spring?

  39. Do CO2 levels riseor fall during the spring?

  40. Don’t the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere cancel each other out???

  41. Nope, more vegetation in the Northern Hemisphere.

  42. CO2 peaks in the fall What does this have to do with the Earth’s energy balance? Why the sawtooth?

  43. Temperature History of the Earth

  44. CO2 Concentration (ppm) TEMPERATURE CHANGE

  45. CO2 Concentration (ppm) Why is temperature correlated with CO2 levels? TEMPERATURE CHANGE

  46. Topics for Today • Greenhouse Earth! • The Earth’s Energy Balance

  47. Review

  48. Reflected Absorbed Transmitted Light Can Be…